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Managing hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis: role of etelcalcetide

Authors Eidman KE, Wetmore JB

Received 22 November 2017

Accepted for publication 19 January 2018

Published 5 February 2018 Volume 2018:11 Pages 69—80

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJNRD.S128252

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Justinn Cochran

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Pravin Singhal


Keith E Eidman,1 James B Wetmore1,2

1Division of Nephrology, Hennepin County Medical Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 2Chronic Disease Research Group, Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation, Minneapolis, MN, USA

Abstract: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is common in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis and is associated with adverse outcomes. Currently, SHPT is managed by reducing circulating levels of phosphate with oral binders and parathyroid hormone (PTH) with vitamin D analogs and/or the calcimimetic cinacalcet. Etelcalcetide, a novel calcimimetic administered intravenously (IV) at the end of a hemodialysis treatment session, effectively reduces PTH in clinical trials when given thrice weekly. Additional clinical effects include reductions in circulating levels of phosphate and FGF-23 and an improved profile of markers of bone turnover. However, despite being administered IV, etelcalcetide appears to be associated with rates of nausea and vomiting comparable to those of cinacalcet. Additionally, etelcalcetide, relative to placebo, causes hypocalcemia and prolonged electrocardiographic QT intervals, effects that must be considered when contemplating its use. Etelcalcetide likely has a role in treating hemodialysis patients with uncontrolled SHPT or with hypercalcemia or hyperphosphatemia receiving activated vitamin D compounds. However, its use should be at least partially constrained by consideration of the risk of hypocalcemia and resultant prolonged QT intervals in vulnerable patients. Because of its effectiveness as a PTH-reducing agent administered in the dialysis unit, etelcalcetide represents a potentially promising new therapeutic approach to the often vexing problem of SHPT in hemodialysis patients. However, whether its use is associated with changes in surrogate clinical end points, such as effects on rates of parathyroidectomy, fracture, vascular calcification, or mortality or on quality of life, remains to be studied.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, calcimimetic, parathyroidectomy
 

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