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Managing dyslipidemia in HIV/AIDS patients: challenges and solutions

Authors Husain NE, Ahmed M

Received 15 September 2014

Accepted for publication 31 October 2014

Published 17 December 2014 Volume 2015:7 Pages 1—10

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S46028

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Shenghan Lai


Nazik Elmalaika OS Husain,1 Mohamed H Ahmed2

1Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University, Khartoum, Sudan; 2Department of Medicine, Milton Keynes Hospital, NHS Foundation Trust, Milton Keynes, UK

Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a chronic disease associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. In addition, the administration of combination antiretroviral therapy is associated with an increase in the incidence of metabolic risk factors (insulin resistance, lipoatrophy, dyslipidemia, and abnormalities of fat distribution in HIV patients). HIV dyslipidemia is a common problem, and associated with an increase in incidence of cardiovascular disease. Further challenges in the management of HIV dyslipidemia are the presence of diabetes and metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hypothyroidism, chronic kidney disease, the risk of diabetes associated with statin administration, age and ethnicity, and early menopause in females. Dyslipidemia in patients with HIV is different from the normal population, due to the fact that HIV increases insulin resistance and HIV treatment not only may induce dyslipidemia but also may interact with lipid-lowering medication. The use of all statins (apart from simvastatin and lovastatin) is safe and effective in HIV dyslipidemia, and the addition of ezetimibe, fenofibrate, fish oil, and niacin can be used in statin-unresponsive HIV dyslipidemia. The management of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease risks associated with HIV is complex, and a certain number of patients may require management in specialist clinics run by specialist physicians in lipid disorders. Future research is needed to address best strategies in the management of hyperlipidemia with HIV infection.

Keywords: HIV, dylipidaemia, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, fatty liver, lipid lowering medication

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