Back to Journals » Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management » Volume 5

Management strategies for pulmonary sarcoidosis

Authors Coker R

Published 23 July 2009 Volume 2009:5 Pages 575—584


Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Robina Kate Coker

Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK

Abstract: Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory condition with an unexplained predilection for the lung: over 90% of patients have radiographic or physiological abnormalities. Respiratory physicians therefore often manage patients, but any organ may be involved, with noncaseating granulomas the characteristic feature. Sarcoidosis is the commonest interstitial lung disease (ILD), differing from most other ILDs in that many patients remain asymptomatic or improve spontaneously. Careful baseline assessment of disease distribution and severity is thus central to initial management. Subsequently, the unpredictable clinical course necessitates regular monitoring. Sarcoidosis occurs worldwide, with a high prevalence in Afro-Caribbeans and those of Swedish or Danish origin. African Americans also tend to have severe disease. Oral corticosteroids have been used since the 1950s, with evidence of short to medium response; more recent studies have examined the role of inhaled steroids. Long-term benefits of steroids remain uncertain. International guidelines published in 1999 represent a consensus view endorsed by North American and European respiratory societies. Updated British guidelines on interstitial lung disease, including sarcoidosis, were published in 2008. This review describes current management strategies for pulmonary disease, including oral and inhaled steroids, commonly used alternative immunosuppressant agents, and lung transplantation. Tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors are briefly discussed.

Keywords: sarcoidosis, corticosteroids, methotrexate, tumor necrosis factor alpha

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF] 


Readers of this article also read:

Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles

Prozorova GF, Pozdnyakov AS, Kuznetsova NP, Korzhova SA, Emel’yanov AI, Ermakova TG, Fadeeva TV, Sosedova LM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:1883-1889

Published Date: 16 April 2014

Methacrylic-based nanogels for the pH-sensitive delivery of 5-Fluorouracil in the colon

Ashwanikumar N, Kumar NA, Nair SA, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5769-5779

Published Date: 15 November 2012

A novel preparation method for silicone oil nanoemulsions and its application for coating hair with silicone

Hu Z, Liao M, Chen Y, Cai Y, Meng L, Liu Y, Lv N, Liu Z, Yuan W

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:5719-5724

Published Date: 12 November 2012

Cross-linked acrylic hydrogel for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic drugs in cancer therapy

Deepa G, Thulasidasan AK, Anto RJ, Pillai JJ, Kumar GS

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:4077-4088

Published Date: 27 July 2012


Chen ZQ, Liu Y, Zhao JH, Wang L, Feng NP

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2012, 7:1709-1710

Published Date: 30 March 2012

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010