Male circumcision uptake, postoperative complications, and satisfaction associated with mid-level providers in rural Kenya
Thoai D Ngo1, George Obhai2
1Research and Metrics Team, Health System Department, Marie Stopes International; 2Monitoring and Evaluation Team, Marie Stopes International Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess postoperative complications and patient satisfaction associated with mid-level provision of male circumcision in rural Kenya.
Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted among children, adolescents, and adult men undergoing male circumcision from September 1, 2008 to December 4, 2008 at Marie Stopes International Kenya mobile outreach sites located in eight districts in the Nyanza and Western Provinces, Kenya. Male circumcision procedures were performed by registered nurses, surgical technicians, or nurse aides. Postoperative follow-up visits took place on the day of the procedure and at postoperative days 3, 7, and 30, with additional visits as necessary. Data on adverse events, healing conditions, satisfaction level, and resumption of activities were assessed at each follow-up visit.
Results: A total of 285 individuals were screened, and 240 underwent male circumcision procedures. All procedures were performed using the guided forceps technique by mid-level providers. At the first follow-up visit (postoperative day 3), 5.8% (n = 14) individuals did not return for post-surgical assessment. Retention rates at the second (day 7) and third (day 30) follow-up visits were 91.3% (n = 219) and 84.6% (n = 203), respectively. The prevalence of complications (moderate and severe adverse events) was 1.3% (3/240). At the first and second follow-up visits, 91.7% of patients (n = 220) were capable of resuming their daily activities, and 100% by day 30. The majority of patients (>99%) were satisfied with the procedure, counseling, and information received.
Conclusion: Male circumcisions can be delivered safely and successfully by mid-level providers in rural settings with high client satisfaction, thereby increasing access to human immunodeficiency virus prevention services in Kenya.
Keywords: male circumcision, human immunodeficiency virus, reproductive health, mid-level providers, Kenya
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