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Maintenance therapy with all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide improves relapse-free survival in adults with low- to intermediate-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia who have achieved complete remission after consolidation therapy

Authors Liang B, Zheng ZY, Shi YF, Chen JJ, Hu XD, Qian HL, Shen ZJ, Jiang SF, Yu K, Feng JH

Received 17 February 2017

Accepted for publication 27 March 2017

Published 26 April 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 2305—2313

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S135013

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Yao Dai

Bin Liang,1,* Zhouyi Zheng,1,2,* Yifen Shi,1 Jingjing Chen,1 Xudong Hu,1 Honglan Qian,1 Zhijian Shen,1 Songfu Jiang,1 Kang Yu,1 Jianhua Feng1,3

1Division of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 2Division of Hematology-Oncology, Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital of Zhuji, Shaoxing, 3Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Background: Currently, the optimal maintenance therapy for patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) who have achieved complete remission (CR) after completing consolidation chemotherapy remains controversial. The comparative effectiveness of the all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plus arsenic trioxide (As2O3) maintenance strategy with classic ATRA plus chemotherapy has not been evaluated. In this study, we compared the efficacy and toxicity of maintenance therapy with ATRA plus As2O3 and classic ATRA plus chemotherapy in low- to intermediate-risk APL patients reaching the first CR after induction and consolidation therapy.
Methods: A retrospective review of 58 adult patients diagnosed with APL was conducted. After receiving consolidation therapy and achieving CR, 30 patients were administered maintenance therapy with an ATRA plus As2O3 regimen (ATRA+As2O3 group), whereas 28 patients were administered 3-monthly cycles of an ATRA plus chemotherapy regimen (ATRA+chemotherapy group).
Results: Grade 3–4 neutropenia was significantly more frequent in the ATRA+chemotherapy group (N=9, 32.1%) than in the ATRA+As2O3 group (N=0) (P=0.001). At a median follow-up of 49.1 months (range: 9.7–97.4 months) from the completion of consolidation, no relapses were observed in the ATRA+As2O3 group, whereas seven relapses occurred in the ATRA+chemotherapy group. The risk of relapse in the patients administered ATRA+As2O3 maintenance was significantly lower than that in those administered ATRA+chemotherapy maintenance (P=0.004). Based on log-rank analysis, only maintenance therapy with ATRA and As2O3 was associated with a significantly higher relapse-free survival (P=0.0159).
Conclusion: Maintenance therapy with ATRA and As2O3 was beneficial in low- to intermediate-risk APL patients who were effectively treated to achieve CR. Further clinical trials with reliable designs are needed to confirm these observations.

Keywords: acute promyelocytic leukemia, all-trans retinoic acid, arsenic trioxide, maintenance therapy, survival

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