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Magnitude of Phenotypic and MTBDRplus Line Probe Assay First-Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Among Tuberculosis Patients; Northwest Ethiopia

Authors Yigzaw WB, Torrelles JB, Wang SH, Tessema B

Received 19 November 2020

Accepted for publication 28 January 2021

Published 10 February 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 497—505


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Suresh Antony

Wubet Birhan Yigzaw, 1 Jordi B Torrelles, 2 Shu-Hua Wang, 3 Belay Tessema 1

1Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 2Population Health Program, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA

Correspondence: Wubet Birhan Yigzaw
Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, P.O. Box: 196, Gondar, Ethiopia

Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) drug resistance is a key challenge in ending TB.
Objective: The study aimed to determine anti-TB drug resistance and compare the discordance between phenotypic and genotypic drug-susceptibility testing (DST).
Methods: Prospective enrollment and sputum collection from patients suspected of active pulmonary TB from May 2018 to December 2019 at the University of Gondar Hospital. Phenotypic DST study for streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol was done by MGIT 360 SIRE Kit. Genotypic resistance for isoniazid and rifampin was performed by MTBDRplus v2 line probe assay (LPA) and compared to phenotypic drug resistance.
Results: A total of 376 patients, median age 32 years, and 53.7% male were enrolled. Mtb was isolated from 126 patients. 106/126 (84%) patients were newly diagnosed with TB and 20 patients with prior TB treatment. Seventy (66.0%) were susceptible to all anti‐TB drugs tested. Twenty-five (19.8%) of the isolates were resistant to isoniazid, 12 (9.5%) to rifampicin and six (5%) were multidrug resistant. Among previously treated TB patients, 4 (20.0%) and 5 (25.0%) were mono-resistant and poly-resistant, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of LPA resistance for isoniazid were 94.4% and 100%, and for rifampin was 75.0% and 100%, respectively.
Conclusion: The frequency of mono- and poly-drug resistance among both newly diagnosed and previously treated TB patients was high to the rest of the nation. MTBDRplus showed excellent concordance for isoniazid and rifampin. We concluded that DST should be performed for all patients to improve management and decrease spread of drug-resistant Mtb strains in the community.

Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, diagnosis, drug resistance, MGIT, MTBDRplus

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