Magnitude and Determinants of Uncontrolled Blood Pressure Among Adult Hypertensive Patients on Follow-Up at Nekemte Referral Hospital, Western Ethiopia
Received 14 January 2020
Accepted for publication 7 April 2020
Published 21 April 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 49—61
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Konstantinos Tziomalos
Ginenus Fekadu,1 Abdi Adamu,2 Mohammed Gebre,1 Busha Gamachu,1 Firomsa Bekele,3 Muktar Abadiga,4 Getu Mosisa,4 Adugna Oluma4
1Clinical Pharmacy Unit, Department of Pharmacy, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopa; 2Shanan Gibe Hospital, Jimma, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopa; 3Department of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Mettu University, Mettu, Ethiopa; 4Department of Nursing, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopa
Correspondence: Ginenus Fekadu
Clinical Pharmacy Unit, Department of Pharmacy, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Oromia, Ethiopia
Background: Hypertension is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among non-communicable diseases. The rate of blood pressure (BP) control among hypertensive patients is poor and the reasons for poor control of BP remain poorly understood globally. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the magnitude and determinants of uncontrolled blood pressure among adult hypertensive patients on follow-up at Nekemte referral hospital (NRH).
Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2018 at NRH. BP control status was determined by the average consecutive BP recordings across the 3 months. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 and p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: Out of 297 study participants included, the majority were females, 181 (60.9%), and the mean age of the patients was 59.4 ± 10.4 years. About half, 137 (46.12%), of the patients had at least one comorbidity and the most common class of anti-hypertensive medication was angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (88.2%). The mean of systolic blood pressure was 132.41± 15.61mmHg, while the mean of diastolic blood pressure was 84.37± 9.32 mmHg. The proportion of participants with optimally controlled BP was 63.6% and 36% were adherent to their medications. Male sex (Adjusted Odd Ratio [AOR]: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.09– 4.84), illiteracy (AOR= 1.56, 95% CI: 1.22– 6.78), duration of hypertension diagnosis > 10 years (AOR= 2.01, 95% CI: 1.04– 16.11), non-adherence (AOR= 3.14, 95% CI: 1.35– 10.76) and lack of physical exercise (AOR= 2.8, 95% CI: 1.16– 6.74) were positively associated with uncontrolled BP status. Whereas age older than 55 years (AOR= 0.38, 95% CI: 0.11– 0.92) was negatively associated with uncontrolled BP.
Conclusion: BP control was relatively achieved in about two-third of pharmacologically treated patients. We recommend better health education and care of patients to improve the rate of BP control status.
Keywords: blood pressure, blood pressure control, hypertension, hypertensive patients, Ethiopia
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