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Magnesium ion implantation on a micro/nanostructured titanium surface promotes its bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation function

Authors Wang G, Li J, Zhang W, Xu L, Pan H, Wen J, Wu Q, She W, Jiao T, Liu X, Jiang X

Received 27 November 2013

Accepted for publication 10 March 2014

Published 21 May 2014 Volume 2014:9(1) Pages 2387—2398

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S58357

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Guifang Wang,1,2,* Jinhua Li,3,* Wenjie Zhang,1,2 Lianyi Xu,1,2 Hongya Pan,2 Jin Wen,1,2 Qianju Wu,1,2 Wenjun She,1 Ting Jiao,1 Xuanyong Liu,3 Xinquan Jiang,1,2

1Department of Prosthodontics, Ninth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2Oral Bioengineering Laboratory, Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, 3State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People's Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: As one of the important ions associated with bone osseointegration, magnesium was incorporated into a micro/nanostructured titanium surface using a magnesium plasma immersion ion-implantation method. Hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 30 minutes (Mg30) and hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 60 minutes (Mg60) were used as test groups. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and amount of magnesium ions released were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSCs) were used to evaluate cell responses, including proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation on the surface of the material or in their medium extraction. Greater increases in the spreading and proliferation ability of rBMMSCs were observed on the surfaces of magnesium-implanted micro/nanostructures compared with the control plates. Furthermore, the osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes were upregulated on both surfaces and in their medium extractions. The enhanced cell responses were correlated with increasing concentrations of magnesium ions, indicating that the osteoblastic differentiation of rBMMSCs was stimulated through the magnesium ion function. The magnesium ion-implanted micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces could enhance the proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation activity of rBMMSCs, suggesting they have potential application in improving bone-titanium integration.

Keywords: surface modification, micro/nanostructure, magnesium, ion implantation, osteogenic differentiation

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