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Lung function and CT lung densitometry in 37- to 39-year-old individuals with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency

Authors Mostafavi B, Diaz S, Piitulainen E, Stoel BC, Wollmer P, Tanash HA

Received 7 March 2018

Accepted for publication 28 June 2018

Published 8 November 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 3689—3698


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell

Behrouz Mostafavi,1 Sandra Diaz,2 Eeva Piitulainen,1 Berend C Stoel,3 Per Wollmer,4 Hanan A Tanash1

1Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology Malmö, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Physiology Malmö, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; 3Division of Image Processing, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical, Leiden, the Netherlands; 4Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden

Background: Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder that predisposes to emphysema. A cohort of severe (PiZZ) and moderate (PiSZ) AAT-deficient newborn infants was identified by the Swedish national neonatal AAT screening program in 1972–1974 and has been followed-up since birth. Our aim was to study whether the cohort has signs of emphysema in pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and computed tomography (CT) densitometry at 38 years of age in comparison with an age-matched control group, randomly selected from the population registry.
Methods: Forty-one PiZZ, 18 PiSZ, and 61 control subjects (PiMM) underwent complete PFTs, measurement of resistance and reactance in the respiratory system by impulse oscillometry (IOS)/forced oscillation technique (FOT), and CT densitometry. The results were related to self-reported smoking habits.
Results: The total lung capacity (TLC) % of the predicted value was significantly higher in the PiZZ ever-smokers than in the PiZZ never-smokers (P<0.05), PiSZ never-smokers (P=0.01) and the PiMM never-smokers (P=0.01). The residual volume (RV) % of the predicted value was significantly higher in the PiZZ ever-smokers compared to the PiMM never-smokers (P<0.01). The PiZZ ever-smokers had a significantly lower carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (Kco) than the PiSZ never-smokers (P<0.01) and PiMM never-smokers (P<0.01). Respiratory system resistance at 5 Hz (P<0.01), at 20 Hz (P<0.01), and the area of low reactance (Alx; P<0.05) were significantly lower and respiratory system reactance at 5 Hz (P<0.05) was significantly higher in PiZZ subjects compared to the PiMM subjects. No statistically significant differences in the CT densitometry parameters were found between the Pi subgroups.
Conclusion: The physiological parameters in the PiZZ ever-smokers showed evidence of hyperinflation and emphysema before the age of 40 years.

Keywords: alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, lung function, lung disease, screening, impulse oscillometry

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