Lower extremity venous thrombosis in patients younger than 50 years of age
Raghid Kreidy1, Pascale Salameh2, Mirna Waked3
1Department of Vascular Surgery, Saint George Hospital, University Medical Center, University of Balamand, 2Laboratory of Clinical and Epidemiological Research, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Saint George Hospital, University Medical Center, University of Balamand, Beirut, Lebanon
Aim: Lower extremity deep venous thrombosis in the young adult is uncommon and has not been well studied in the literature. The aim of this study is to define risk factors for deep venous thrombosis among patients younger than 50 years of age, to compare them with a control group, and to suggest recommendations for the management and treatment of venous thrombosis in this particular group of patients.
Methods: From January 2003 to January 2011, 66 consecutive Lebanese patients (29 males and 37 females) younger than 50 years, diagnosed in an academic tertiary-care center with lower extremity deep venous thrombosis by color flow duplex scan, were retrospectively reviewed. Their age varied between 21 and 50 years (mean 38.7 years). The control group included 217 patients (86 males and 131 females) older than 50 years (range: 50–96 years; mean 72.9 years).
Results: The most commonly reported risk factors in the younger age group were inherited thrombophilia (46.9% compared with 13.8% in the control group; P < 0.001), pregnancy (18.2% compared with 0.5%; P < 0.001), treatment with estrogen drugs (13.6% compared with 2.3%; P = 0.001), and family history of venous thromboembolism (9.1% compared with 3.8%; P = 0.084).
Conclusion: Inherited thrombophilia is the most commonly observed risk factor among patients younger than 50 years, with a prevalence of three times more than the control group. Young adults should be screened for thrombophilia even in the presence of transient acquired risk factors. Pregnancy and treatment with estrogen drugs essentially when associated with inherited thrombophilia represent a frequent cause of venous thrombosis among young female patients. Inferior vena cava abnormalities should be excluded in young patients with spontaneous proximal venous thrombosis especially when recurrent venous thrombosis or resistance to anticoagulation are observed.
Keywords: venous thrombosis, lower extremities, young patient, risk factors, genetics
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]
Other articles by this author:
Value of venous color flow duplex scan as initial screening test for geriatric inpatients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism
Kreidy R, Stephan E, Salameh P, Waked M
Published Date: 15 September 2011
Is thrombophilia a major risk factor for deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities among Lebanese patients?
R Kreidy, N Irani-Hakime
Published Date: 31 July 2009
Readers of this article also read:
Accessing to the minor proteome of red blood cells through the influence of the nanoparticle surface properties on the corona composition
Zaccaria A, Roux-Dalvai F, Bouamrani A, Mombrun A, Mossuz P, Monsarrat B, Berger F
Published Date: 9 March 2015
Limitations of real-world treatment with atorvastatin monotherapy for lowering LDL-C in high-risk cardiovascular patients in the US
Marrett E, Zhao C, Zhang NJ, Zhang Q, Ramey DR, Tomassini JE, Tershakovec AM, Neff DR
Published Date: 25 April 2014
The "Pulse Time Index of Norm" highly correlates with the left ventricular mass index in patients with arterial hypertension
Posokhov IN, Kulikova NN, Starchenkova IV, Grigoricheva EA, Evdokimov VV, Orlov AV, Rogoza AN
Published Date: 19 March 2014
Validation of four devices: Omron M6 Comfort, Omron HEM-7420, Withings BP-800, and Polygreen KP-7670 for home blood pressure measurement according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol
Topouchian J, Agnoletti D, Blacher J, Youssef A, Chahine MN, Ibanez I, Assemani N, Asmar R
Published Date: 16 January 2014
Banerjee S, Williamson DA, Habib N, Chataway J
Published Date: 10 October 2012
Burke RM, Evans JD
Published Date: 29 August 2012
Nunes S, Soares E, Pereira FC, Reis F
Published Date: 24 July 2012
De Caterina AR, Harper AR, Cuculi F
Published Date: 19 July 2012
Bastovansky A, Ziegler K, Stöllberger C, Finsterer J
Published Date: 22 June 2012
Head SJ, Mokhles MM, Osnabrugge RLJ, Bogers AJJC, Kappetein AP
Published Date: 19 April 2011