Lower cognitive function in patients with age-related macular degeneration: a meta-analysis
Authors Zhou L, Sun C, Wei L, Gu Z, Lv L, Dang Y
Received 10 December 2015
Accepted for publication 20 January 2016
Published 24 February 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 215—223
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Walker
Li-Xiao Zhou,1 Cheng-Lin Sun,1 Li-Juan Wei,1 Zhi-Min Gu,1 Liang Lv,1 Yalong Dang2
1Department of Ophthalmology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 2Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China
Objective: To investigate the cognitive impairment in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
Methods: Relevant articles were identified through a search of the following electronic databases through October 2015, without language restriction: 1) PubMed; 2) the Cochrane Library; 3) EMBASE; 4) ScienceDirect. Meta-analysis was conducted using STATA 12.0 software. Standardized mean differences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. All of the included studies met the following four criteria: 1) the study design was a case–control or randomized controlled trial (RCT) study; 2) the study investigated cognitive function in the patient with AMD; 3) the diagnoses of AMD must be provided; 4) there were sufficient scores data to extract for evaluating cognitive function between cases and controls. The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale criteria were used to assess the methodological quality of the studies.
Results: Of the initial 278 literatures, only six case–control and one RCT studies met all of the inclusion criteria. A total of 794 AMD patients and 1,227 controls were included in this study. Five studies were performed with mini-mental state examination (MMSE), two studies with animal fluency, two studies with trail making test (TMT)-A and -B, one study with Mini-Cog. Results of the meta-analysis revealed lower cognitive function test scores in patients with AMD, especially with MMSE and Mini-Cog test (P≤0.001 for all). The results also showed that differences in the TMT-A (except AMD [total] vs controls) and TMT-B test had no statistical significance (P>0.01). The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale score was ≥5 for all of the included studies. Based on the sensitivity analysis, no single study influenced the overall pooled estimates.
Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests lower cognitive function test scores in patients with AMD, especially with MMSE and Mini-Cog test. The other cognitive impairment screening tests, such as animal fluency test and TMT, need more studies to assess.
Keywords: age-related macular degeneration; cognitive impairment; meta-analysis; mini mental state examination
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