Low incidence of prostate cancer identified in the transition and anterior zones with transperineal biopsy
Teresa L Danforth,1 K Kent Chevli,1,2 Louis Baumann,1,2 Michael Duff1,2
1The State University of New York (SUNY), Buffalo, NY, 2Cancer Care of Western New York, Cheektowaga, NY, USA
Purpose: Determine the incidence of anterior (AZ) and transition (TZ) zone prostate cancers using a transperineal mapping approach.
Methods: A retrospective review of 137 patients with history of previous negative biopsy undergoing transperineal saturation biopsy for an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA), high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical small acinar proliferation history, or abnormal digital rectal exam. The number of biopsy cores was determined by prostate volume and obtained using a predefined template. The electronic medical records were reviewed for patients' clinical and pathological characteristics.
Results: Forty-one of 137 patients (31.4%) had positive biopsy for prostate adenocarcinoma; 11 were from 24-core, 19 from 36-core, and 11 from 48-core sampling. Glands > 45 mL had a mean of 1.7 previous biopsies and a PSA of 9.1 ng/mL. Glands < 30 mL were 1.3 and 6.3 ng/mL and glands 30–45 mL were 1.4 and 6.5 ng/mL. Glands < 45 mL had a higher number of positive biopsies per total cores. Seven patients chose active surveillance while 34 chose treatment. Of the 36- and 48-cores biopsies, 2.2% and 1.5%, respectively, were positive in the TZ. One patient was AZ-positive, 1 was TZ-positive, and 18 were peripheral zone (PZ)-positive alone. Twelve patients had cancer detected in PZ and TZ. Two patients developed urinary retention and one had a urine infection.
Conclusion: Transperineal saturation biopsy is a safe and efficacious method of prostate cancer detection in patients with previous negative biopsy and high suspicion for cancer. Few cancers were found to originate in the TZ or AZ alone. We recommend that initial biopsy templates should sample PZ with less focus on the TZ.
Keywords: carcinoma, prostate, biopsy, transperineal
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