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Lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of HIV-1 infection: a review

Authors Ashish Chandwani, Jonathan Shuter

Published 10 October 2008 Volume 2008:4(5) Pages 1023—1033

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S3285

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Ashish Chandwani1, Jonathan Shuter2

1Division of Infectious Diseases, Montefiore Medical Center and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; 2AIDS Center and Division of Infectious Diseases, Montefiore Medical Center and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA

Abstract: Lopinavir/ritonavir is the first and only coformulated HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI). Large clinical trials have demonstrated lopinavir/ritonavir’s clinical efficacy in both antiretroviral-naïve and -experienced patients. The immunologic and virologic benefits of treatment with this agent have been proven in HIV-infected adults, adolescents, and children. Smaller studies support the use of lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy as a therapeutic option in certain patients. The drug is characterized by a high genetic barrier to resistance, and appears to be more forgiving of non-adherence than earlier, unboosted PIs. The most frequent side effects observed are diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. These gastrointestinal adverse effects are generally mild to moderate. Metabolic derangements, including hyperlipidemia and glucose intolerance, have also been observed in lopinavir/ritonavir recipients. As the menu of available antiretroviral agents continues to expand, lopinavir/ritonavir remains a proven and effective drug for the treatment of HIV infection.

Keywords: lopinavir/ritonavir, protease inhibitor, HIV, antiretroviral, Kaletra®

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