Lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of HIV-1 infection: a review
Ashish Chandwani1, Jonathan Shuter2
1Division of Infectious Diseases, Montefiore Medical Center and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; 2AIDS Center and Division of Infectious Diseases, Montefiore Medical Center and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA
Abstract: Lopinavir/ritonavir is the first and only coformulated HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI). Large clinical trials have demonstrated lopinavir/ritonavir’s clinical efficacy in both antiretroviral-naïve and -experienced patients. The immunologic and virologic benefits of treatment with this agent have been proven in HIV-infected adults, adolescents, and children. Smaller studies support the use of lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy as a therapeutic option in certain patients. The drug is characterized by a high genetic barrier to resistance, and appears to be more forgiving of non-adherence than earlier, unboosted PIs. The most frequent side effects observed are diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. These gastrointestinal adverse effects are generally mild to moderate. Metabolic derangements, including hyperlipidemia and glucose intolerance, have also been observed in lopinavir/ritonavir recipients. As the menu of available antiretroviral agents continues to expand, lopinavir/ritonavir remains a proven and effective drug for the treatment of HIV infection.
Keywords: lopinavir/ritonavir, protease inhibitor, HIV, antiretroviral, Kaletra®
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