Longitudinal qualitative evaluation of pharmacist integration into the urgent care setting
Received 17 March 2018
Accepted for publication 7 May 2018
Published 25 July 2018 Volume 2018:7 Pages 93—104
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Amy Norman
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Jonathan Ling
David J Wright,1 Richard J Adams,1 Jeanette Blacklock,1 Sarah A Corlett,2 Rebecca Harmston,3 Margaret McWilliams,3 Stephen-Andrew Whyte,4 Gail Fleming4
1School of Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK; 2Medway School of Pharmacy, Universities of Greenwich and Kent at Medway, Chatham, UK; 3Patient and public involvement member of the research team, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK; 4Health Education England, London, UK
Purpose: To describe the most effective model for managing, educating, and training pharmacist advanced clinical practitioners (ACPs) in the urgent care center (UCC) setting, role evolution and how to measure their effectiveness.
Participants and methods: Ethical approval was obtained to perform a qualitative longitudinal cohort study in three sites, with three pharmacists in each trained as ACPs from 2016 to 2017. ACP role, location, management, mentorship, and supervision were locally determined. ACPs attended focus groups (FGs) at 1 and 3 months (sites 1–3), 6 and 12 months (site 1 only), and the UCC staff were interviewed once with a topic guide regarding training, integration, role, and impact. Verbatim transcriptions were analyzed thematically.
Results: Eight ACP FGs and 24 stakeholder interviews produced major themes of communication, management, education and training, role, and outcomes. Effective education, training, and integration required communication of role to address concerns regarding salary differentials, supportive management structure, and multi-professional learning. ACPs reported that the model of workplace training, experiential learning, and university-based education was appropriate. Training was better located in the minor injuries and general practitioner areas. Recommended measures of effectiveness included patient satisfaction and workload transfer.
Conclusion: The education and training model was appropriate. Communication and management require careful consideration to ensure effective integration and role development. Pharmacists were better located initially in the minor illness rather than major trauma areas. Quality of patient experience resulting from the new role was important in addition to reassurance that the role represented a positive contribution to workload.
Keywords: advanced clinical practitioner, accident and emergency, education, training, focus groups, interviews
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