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Long-term results of combination therapy using anti-VEGF agents and dexamethasone intravitreal implant for retinal vein occlusion: an investigational case series

Authors Singer MA, Jansen ME, Tyler L, Woods P, Ansari F, Jain U, Singer J, Bell D, Krambeer C

Received 9 August 2016

Accepted for publication 8 November 2016

Published 19 December 2016 Volume 2017:11 Pages 31—38

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S119373

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Michael A Singer,1 Michael E Jansen,2 Lyndon Tyler,2 Paul Woods,1 Faisal Ansari,2 Udit Jain,2 Joshua Singer,1 Darren Bell,1 Chelsey Krambeer1

1Medical Center Ophthalmology Associates, 2University of Texas Health and Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA

Background: One limitation of anti-VEGF therapy is the need for monthly retreatment to maintain efficacy. The purpose of this study was to determine the duration of effect in eyes with macular edema (ME) secondary to branch or central retinal vein occlusion (BRVO or CRVO) treated with anti-VEGF therapy plus sustained-release dexamethasone (DEX implant; Ozurdex).
Materials and methods: This open-label, interventional case series included 62 eyes with ME due to RVO, central foveal thickness (CFT) >300 µm, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/40 or worse. Each treatment cycle included an anti-VEGF injection followed 2 weeks later with DEX implant. Patients were eligible for retreatment if CFT increased to >290 µm or increased by >50 µm from the lowest measurement, or if BCVA decreased by six or more Snellen letters. Efficacy and safety were evaluated 2 and 4–6 weeks after the beginning of each treatment cycle and every 4 weeks thereafter until retreatment criteria were met. The primary outcome measure was time to retreatment. Secondary outcome measures included BCVA, CFT, and safety parameters.
Results: The mean reinjection interval for all patients was 135.5±36.4 days. There was no statistically significant difference in mean intertreatment interval for up to six cycles of treatment or between eyes with BRVO or CRVO (P≥0.058). Mean peak change in BCVA was 13.8 letters, and 47.6% of eyes gained three or more lines of BCVA. The mean peak decrease in CFT across all treatment cycles was 200.9 µm for eyes with BRVO and 219.2 µm for eyes with CRVO. The percentage of patients with CFT ≤300 µm at any time during a given treatment cycle ranged from 78% to 94% among eyes with BRVO and from 85% to 100% among eyes with CRVO. Intraocular pressure increased in 19 of 62 eyes, and 26 of 44 phakic eyes underwent cataract surgery.
Conclusion: In eyes with ME due to RVO, treatment with an anti-VEGF agent plus DEX implant provided a predictable duration of effect, as well as significant improvements in BCVA and CFT.

Keywords: dexamethasone, intravitreal, macular edema, retinal vein occlusion

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