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Long-term progression of visual field defects and related factors in medically treated normal tension glaucoma

Authors Yoshikawa K, Santo K, Hizaki H, Hashimoto M

Received 14 July 2017

Accepted for publication 20 November 2017

Published 31 January 2018 Volume 2018:12 Pages 247—253

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S146455

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser


Keiji Yoshikawa,1 Kazunori Santo,2 Hiroko Hizaki,2 Masayo Hashimoto2

1Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 2Medical Affairs, Santen Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan

Purpose: To analyze factors related to long-term progression of visual field defects (VFD) in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) under medical therapy.
Patients and methods: Clinical data from 622 eyes of 311 primary open-angle glaucoma and NTG patients were collected from April 2006 to March 2016. Of these patients, those with normal intraocular pressure (IOP); glaucomatous VFD judged by Anderson’s criteria; corrected visual acuity ≥0.7; receiving more than 6 years medical therapy; having undergone ≥10 visual field tests performed at 6-month intervals using a Humphrey field analyzer (Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithms standard, C 24-2 program); and having reliability coefficients of visual field testing <33% and mean deviation (MD) more than -20 decibels in the initial visual field test were included in data analysis. The relationship between MD slope deterioration at final observation and consecutive decreases in MD value during the observation period, as well as clinical characteristics and IOP-related factors, were analyzed.
Results:
Of 134 eyes in 134 NTG patients meeting all eligibility criteria, significant MD slope deterioration was observed in 80 eyes (59.7%). MD slope deterioration was significantly associated with consecutive decreases in MD values (Cochran–Armitage trend test: P=0.0000; univariate logistic regression analysis: P<0.0001). While no significant relationship was observed between central corneal thickness, refractive error, or prevalence of disc hemorrhage, consecutive decreases in MD value was significantly related to MD slope deterioration (univariate logistic regression analysis: P<0.0001). A reduction of IOP during the follow-up period was significantly related to nondeterioration of the MD slope (multivariate logistic regression analysis: P=0.0020).
Conclusion: In this 6-year observation of NTG patients treated with medical therapy, the occurrence of three or more consecutive decreases in MD value was significantly associated with visual field deterioration. Reduction in IOP was postulated to be contributing in the prevention of VFD progression.

Keywords: long-term follow-up, MD slope deterioration, consecutive decrease in MD value, intraocular pressure reduction

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