Long-term effect of ropivacaine nanoparticles for sciatic nerve block on postoperative pain in rats
Authors Wang Z, Huang H, Yang S, Huang S, Guo J, Tang Q, Qi F
Received 30 November 2015
Accepted for publication 15 March 2016
Published 17 May 2016 Volume 2016:11 Pages 2081—2090
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Lei Yang
Zi Wang,1,* Haizhen Huang,2,* Shaozhong Yang,1 Shanshan Huang,1 Jingxuan Guo,1 Qi Tang,1 Feng Qi1
1Department of Anesthesiology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Stomatology Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Purpose: The analgesic effect of ropivacaine (Rop) for nerve block lasts only ~3–6 hours for single use. The aim of this study was to develop long-acting regional anesthetic Rop nanoparticles and investigate the effects of sciatic nerve block on postoperative pain in rats.
Materials and methods: Rop nanoparticles were developed using polyethylene glycol-co-polylactic acid (PELA). One hundred and twenty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=30, each): Con (control group; 0.9% saline, 200 µL), PELA (PELA group; 10 mg), Rop (Rop group; 0.5%, 200 µL), and Rop-PELA (Rop-PELA group; 10%, 10 mg). Another 12 rats were used for the detection of Rop concentration in plasma. The mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency were measured at 2 hours, 4 hours, 8 hours, 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days after incision. The expression of c-FOS was determined by immunohistochemistry at 2 hours, 8 hours, 48 hours, and 7 days. Nerve and organ toxicities were also evaluated at 7 days.
Results: The duration of Rop absorption in the plasma of the Rop-PELA group was longer (>8 hours) than that of the Rop group (4 hours). Mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency in the Rop-PELA group were higher than that in other groups (4 hours–3 days). c-FOS expression in the Rop-PELA group was lower than that in the control group at 2 hours, 8 hours, and 48 hours and lower than that in the Rop group at 8 hours and 48 hours after paw incision. Slight foreign body reactions were observed surrounding the sciatic nerve at 7 days. No obvious pathophysiological change was found in the major organs after Rop-PELA administration at 7 days.
Conclusion: Rop-PELA provides an effective analgesia for nerve block over 3 days after single administration, and the analgesic mechanism might be mediated by the regulation of spinal c-FOS expression. However, its potential long-term tissue toxicity needs to be further investigated.
Keywords: polyethylene glycol-co-polylactic acid, nanoparticle, ropivacaine, sciatic nerve block, postoperative pain
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