Liraglutide therapy beyond glycemic control: An observational study in Indian patients with type 2 diabetes in real world setting
Jothydev Kesavadev, Arun Shankar, Gopika Krishnan, Sunitha Jothydev
Jothydev's Diabetes Research Center, JDC Junction, Trivandrum, Kerala, India 695032
Background: Liraglutide is an analog of human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and acts as a GLP-1 receptor agonist. Liraglutide is presently used in the treatment of selected patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Objective: To assess efficacy and safety of liraglutide in, overweight and obese Indian patients with T2DM.
Methods: A single center, prospective, open-labeled, single-arm, observational study for 24 weeks in a real-world setting. Fourteen overweight and obese patients with T2DM who were clinically suitable for liraglutide therapy received liraglutide injections. The starting dose of liraglutide (Victoza) injection was 0.6 mg/day for 3 days followed by 1.2 mg for next 10 days and finally 1.8 mg/day for 22 weeks. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 12 and 24 weeks of therapy. Adverse events (AE) noted during course of therapy were recorded. A repeated measure analysis of variance was performed to assess statistical significance.
Results: Fourteen patients were studied for 24 weeks. After 24 weeks of liraglutide therapy, mean fasting and postprandial plasma glucose decreased by 48.5 mg/dL and 66.71 mg/dL, respectively (P = 0.002 and P = 0004 over 24 weeks, respectively). A mean reduction of 2.26% of glycosylated hemoglobin was noted (P < 0.001 over 24 weeks). Mean decrease in body weight of 8.65 kg and mean decrease in body mass index of 3.26 kg/m2 was noted (P < 0.001 over 24 weeks for each parameter). Systolic blood pressure was reduced by 15.15 mm of Hg (P = 0.004). Significant improvement in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and serum creatinine was noted. Nine patients reported AEs. The AEs noticed were nausea (n = 6), feeling of satiety (n = 3), and vomiting (n = 1). No serious AE or hypoglycemic episodes were observed.
Conclusion: Liraglutide once a day improved overall glycemic control and was well tolerated. Clinically significant reduction in body weight, systolic blood pressure and improvement in lipid profile were noticed with liraglutide therapy in addition to glycemic control.
Keywords: liraglutide, weight loss, type 2 diabetes, obesity, GLP-1 analog, lipid profile, blood pressure, India
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