Levels and Predictors of Self-Care Among Patients with Hypertension in Pakistan
Authors Ajani K, Gowani A, Gul R, Petrucka P
Received 16 December 2020
Accepted for publication 19 February 2021
Published 25 March 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 1023—1032
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Khairulnissa Ajani,1 Ambreen Gowani,1 Raisa Gul,1,2 Pammla Petrucka3
1School of Nursing, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan; 2School of Nursing, Shifa Tameer-e-Millat University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 3College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
Correspondence: Khairulnissa Ajani
Aga Khan University School of Nursing, P.O. Box 3500, Stadium Road, Karachi, Pakistan
Email [email protected]
Background: Globally, hypertension is the leading non-communicable disease and strongest predictor of cardiovascular diseases. To mitigate and prevent hypertension-related complications, self-care behavior adaptation has proven to be vital. In this study, we examined the six clinically prescribed levels of self-care as prescribed by the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure and its predictors among a select sample of hypertensive individuals in Karachi, Pakistan.
Methods: This study reports the cross-sectional survey of a sequential mixed method study which assessed the levels of self-care of hypertensive individuals residing in an urban cosmopolitan setting within Karachi Pakistan. Four hundred and two patients were screened using the H-SCALE questionnaire, while socio-demographic predictors of self-care and level of knowledge of hypertension were identified using a study-specific checklist. Self-care was assessed against six clinical domains including medication adherence, diet, weight management, physical activity, and abstinence from alcohol.
Results: Participants were recruited from the two largest tertiary care hospitals in Karachi. Good knowledge about hypertension, including its causes, management, and complications was reported by 4.47% of the participants. Highest levels of self-care adherence were found for abstinence from alcohol (100%), smoking cessation (83.33%), and medication compliance (71.89%), whereas lowest levels were found for diet (27.11%), and physical activity (24.88%). In terms of predictors for self-care, age, male gender, and self-checking of blood pressure at home, followed by the level of education were the most common predictors for each self-care behavior in the given population.
Conclusion: Overall knowledge of self-care for hypertension is sub-optimal among hypertensive patients in Pakistan which is reflected in their behaviors. There is a need to introduce healthcare educational programs in Pakistan which can improve self-care behaviors of hypertensive individuals and potentially reduce the prevalence of associated cardiovascular diseases and its complications.
Keywords: hypertension, self-care management, cross-sectional study, Pakistan
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]