Left ventricular twisting mechanics and exercise in healthy individuals: a systematic review
C Taylor Drury,1,2 Shannon SD Bredin,3 Aaron A Phillips,1,2 Darren ER Warburton1,2
1Cardiovascular Physiology and Rehabilitation Laboratory, University of British Columbia; 2Experimental Medicine Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia; 3Cognitive and Functional Learning Laboratory, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Abstract: The aim of this study was to review systematically the effects of exercise on left ventricular (LV) twisting mechanics in healthy individuals. Literature searches were conducted in electronic databases for articles reporting measures of LV twisting mechanics in healthy individuals before and during/after exercise. Upon review, 18 articles were analyzed. Studies were separated by exercise type into the following four categories to allow for detailed comparisons: submaximal, prolonged endurance, maximal, and chronic endurance. Despite an overall methodological quality of low to moderate and within-group variations in exercise intensity, duration, and subject characteristics, important trends in the literature emerged. Most important, the coupling of LV systolic twisting and diastolic untwisting was present in all exercise types, as both were either improved or impaired concomitantly, highlighting the linkage between systole and diastole provided through LV twist. In addition, trends regarding the effects of age, training status, and cardiac loading also became apparent within different exercise types. Furthermore, a potential dose-response relationship between exercise duration and the degree of impairment to LV twisting mechanics was found. Although some disagreement existed in results, the observed trends provide important directions for future research. Future investigations should be of higher methodological quality and should include consistent exercise protocols and subject populations in order to minimize the variability between investigations.
Keywords: twisting mechanics, diastolic untwisting, rotational parameters, exercise intensity and duration
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