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Laparoscopic cholecystectomy perioperative management: an update

Authors Sellbrant I, Ledin G, Jakobsson JG

Received 10 April 2015

Accepted for publication 23 May 2015

Published 9 July 2015 Volume 2015:2 Pages 53—57

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/AA.S86408

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Gildasio S De Oliveira Jr.

Irene Sellbrant,1 Gustaf Ledin,2 Jan G Jakobsson2

1Department of Anaesthesia, Capio Lundby, Gothenburg, 2Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Institution for Clinical Science, Karolinska Institutet, Danderyds Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

Abstract: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most common general surgical procedures. The aim of the present paper is to review current evidence and well-established practice for elective laparoscopic perioperative management. There is no firm evidence for best anesthetic technique, further high quality studies assessing short as well as more protracted outcomes are needed. Preventive multi-modal analgesia, combining non-opioid analgesics, paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or coxib, and local anesthesia, has a long history. Local anesthesia improves postoperative pain and facilitates discharge on the day of surgery. Whether transversus abdominis plane-block has clinically important advantages compared to local infiltration analgesia needs further studies. Single intravenous dose steroid, dexamethasone, reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting, pain, and enhances the recovery process. Multi-modal analgesia is reassuringly safe thus having a positive benefit versus risk profile. Adherence to modern guidelines avoiding prolonged fasting and liberal intravenous fluid regime supports rapid recovery. The effects of CO2 insufflation must be acknowledged and low intra-abdominal pressure should be sought in order to reduce negative cardiovascular/respiratory effects. There is no firm evidence supporting heating and humidification of the insufflated gas. The potential risk for CO2/gas entrainment into vasaculture, gas emboli, or subcutaneous/intra-thoracic into the pleural space must be kept in mind. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in ASA 1-2 patients following a multi-modal enhanced recovery protocol promotes high success rate for discharge on the day of surgery.

Keywords: laparoscopic cholecystectomy, CO2 insufflation, complications, side effects, review, meta-analysis
 

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