KEMTUB012-NI2, a novel potent tubulysin analog that selectively targets hypoxic cancer cells and is potentiated by cytochrome p450 reductase downregulation
Authors Lazzari P, Spiga M, Sani M, Zanda M, Fleming IN
Received 20 January 2017
Accepted for publication 27 March 2017
Published 23 May 2017 Volume 2017:5 Pages 45—59
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Dörthe Katschinski
Paolo Lazzari,1 Marco Spiga,1 Monica Sani,1,2 Matteo Zanda,2,3 Ian N Fleming4
1KemoTech s.r.l., Parco Scientifico della Sardegna, Pula, Cagliari, 2C.N.R. – Istituto di Chimica del Riconoscimento Molecolare, Sezione ‘A. Quilico’, Milano, Italy; 3Kosterlitz Centre for Therapeutics, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, 4Aberdeen Biomedical Imaging Centre, Institute of Medical Sciences, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK
Purpose: There is an urgent need to develop effective therapies and treatment strategies to treat hypoxic tumors, which have a very poor prognosis and do not respond well to existing therapies.
Methods: A novel hypoxia-targeting agent, KEMTUB012-NI2, was synthesized by conjugating a 2-nitroimidazole hypoxia-targeting moiety to a synthetic tubulysin, a very potent antimitotic. Its hypoxic selectivity and mode of action were studied in breast cancer cell lines.
Results: KEMTUB012-NI2 exhibited a similar selectivity for hypoxic cells to that of tirapazamine, a well-established hypoxia-targeting agent, but was >1,000 times more potent in cell cytotoxicity assays. The hypoxia-targeting mechanism for both KEMTUB012-NI2 and tirapazamine was selective and mediated by one-electron reductases. However, while cytochrome p450 reductase (POR) downregulation could inhibit tirapazamine cytotoxicity, it actually sensitized hypoxic cells to KEMTUB012-NI2.
Conclusion: KEMTUB012-NI2 is a potent new agent that can selectively target hypoxic cancer cells. The hypoxia selectivity of KEMTUB012-NI2 and tirapazamine appears to be differentially activated by reductases. Since reductases are heterogeneously expressed in tumors, the different activation mechanisms will allow these agents to complement each other. Combining POR downregulation with KEMTUB012-NI2 treatment could be a new treatment strategy that maximizes efficacy toward hypoxic tumor cells while limiting systemic toxicity.
Keywords: breast cancer, tubulysin, anti-mitotic, hypoxia, cell death, reductase
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