Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 12

Kalopanacis Cortex extract-capped gold nanoparticles activate NRF2 signaling and ameliorate damage in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells exposed to oxygen–glucose deprivation and reoxygenation

Authors Park SY, Chae SY, Park JO, Lee KJ, Park G

Received 28 March 2017

Accepted for publication 24 May 2017

Published 22 June 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 4563—4578


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster

Sun Young Park,1 Seon Yeong Chae,1,2 Jin Oh Park,2 Kyu Jin Lee,2 Geuntae Park1,2

1Bio-IT Fusion Technology Research Institute, 2Department of Nanofusion Technology, Graduate School, Pusan National University, Busan, Republic of Korea

Abstract: Recently, environment-friendly synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has been extensively explored by biologists and chemists. However, significant research is still required to determine whether “eco-friendly” GNPs are beneficial to human health and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of their effects on human cells. We used human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells to show that treatment with Kalopanacis Cortex extract-capped GNPs (KC-GNs), prepared via an eco-friendly, fast, one-pot synthetic route, protected neuronal cells against oxygen–glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced damage. To prepare GNPs, Kalopanacis Cortex was used without any chemical reducing and stabilizing agents. Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy showed maximum absorbance at 526 nm owing to KC-GN surface plasmon resonance. Hydrodynamic size (54.02±2.19 nm) and zeta potential (-20.3±0.04 mV) were determined by dynamic light scattering. The average diameter (41.07±3.05 nm) was determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of assembled GNPs. Fourier transform infrared analysis suggested that functional groups such as O–H, C–C, and C–N participated in KC-GN formation. Cell viability assays indicated that KC-GNs restored the viability of OGD/R-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Flow cytometry demonstrated that KC-GNs inhibited the OGD/R-induced reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential disruption. KC-GNs also inhibited the apoptosis of OGD/R-exposed cells. Western blot analysis indicated that the OGD/R-induced cellular apoptosis and simultaneous increases in the expression of cleaved caspase-3, p53, p21, and B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein were reversed by KC-GNs. The KC-GN-mediated protection against OGD/R-induced neurotoxicity was diminished by NRF2 and heme oxygenase-1 gene knockdowns. Collectively, these results suggested that KC-GNs exerted strong neuroprotective effects on human neuronal cells, which might be attributed to the attenuation of OGD/R-induced neuronal cell injury through the NRF2 signaling pathway.

Keywords: gold nanoparticle, Kalopanacis Cortex, oxygen–glucose deprivation, neuroprotection, NRF2

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]