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Kalopanacis Cortex extract-capped gold nanoparticles activate NRF2 signaling and ameliorate damage in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells exposed to oxygen–glucose deprivation and reoxygenation

Authors Park SY, Chae SY, Park JO, Lee KJ, Park G

Received 28 March 2017

Accepted for publication 24 May 2017

Published 22 June 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 4563—4578

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S138178

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Lakshmi Kiran Chelluri

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster


Sun Young Park,1 Seon Yeong Chae,1,2 Jin Oh Park,2 Kyu Jin Lee,2 Geuntae Park1,2

1Bio-IT Fusion Technology Research Institute, 2Department of Nanofusion Technology, Graduate School, Pusan National University, Busan, Republic of Korea

Abstract: Recently, environment-friendly synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has been extensively explored by biologists and chemists. However, significant research is still required to determine whether “eco-friendly” GNPs are beneficial to human health and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of their effects on human cells. We used human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells to show that treatment with Kalopanacis Cortex extract-capped GNPs (KC-GNs), prepared via an eco-friendly, fast, one-pot synthetic route, protected neuronal cells against oxygen–glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced damage. To prepare GNPs, Kalopanacis Cortex was used without any chemical reducing and stabilizing agents. Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy showed maximum absorbance at 526 nm owing to KC-GN surface plasmon resonance. Hydrodynamic size (54.02±2.19 nm) and zeta potential (-20.3±0.04 mV) were determined by dynamic light scattering. The average diameter (41.07±3.05 nm) was determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of assembled GNPs. Fourier transform infrared analysis suggested that functional groups such as O–H, C–C, and C–N participated in KC-GN formation. Cell viability assays indicated that KC-GNs restored the viability of OGD/R-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Flow cytometry demonstrated that KC-GNs inhibited the OGD/R-induced reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential disruption. KC-GNs also inhibited the apoptosis of OGD/R-exposed cells. Western blot analysis indicated that the OGD/R-induced cellular apoptosis and simultaneous increases in the expression of cleaved caspase-3, p53, p21, and B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein were reversed by KC-GNs. The KC-GN-mediated protection against OGD/R-induced neurotoxicity was diminished by NRF2 and heme oxygenase-1 gene knockdowns. Collectively, these results suggested that KC-GNs exerted strong neuroprotective effects on human neuronal cells, which might be attributed to the attenuation of OGD/R-induced neuronal cell injury through the NRF2 signaling pathway.

Keywords: gold nanoparticle, Kalopanacis Cortex, oxygen–glucose deprivation, neuroprotection, NRF2
 

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