Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong-Decoction regulates the expression of glutamate transporters to attenuate glutamate excitotoxicity and exerts anti-tics effects in Tourette syndrome model rats
Received 24 August 2018
Accepted for publication 30 October 2018
Published 17 December 2018 Volume 2018:14 Pages 3381—3392
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Andrew Yee
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Yu-Ping Ning
Wenjing Yu,1,* Xiaowei Shi,2,* Xia Cui,1 Yan Niu,1 Wen Zhang,1 Xue Bai,3 Qian Wang,1 Lijun Hu,1 Sumei Wang4
1Department of Pediatrics, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine Third Affiliated Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China; 2School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China; 3Department of Pediatrics, First Affiliated Hospital, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin, China; 4Department of Pediatrics, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Purpose: This study explored whether Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong-Decoction (JPZDD) could regulate the metabolism of glutamate (GLU) and its transporters in the striatum to exert anti-tics effects in Tourette syndrome (TS) rats.
Materials and methods: We randomly assigned 56 Sprague Dawley rats into four groups, each with 14 rats: control, model, tiapride (Tia), and JPZDD. TS groups (model, Tia, and JPZDD) received intraperitoneal injection of 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile for 7 days to establish TS model. Thereafter, rats in the four groups were treated differently once a day for 6 weeks. Behavioral evaluation was performed each week by using stereotypy recording and autonomic activity test. The level of GLU in the striatum was examined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Expression of EAAT1 and VGLUT1 were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and laser scanning confocal microscope.
Results: Compared with the model group, the stereotypy score and autonomic activity were decreased in Tia and JPZDD groups. Notably, the model group had increased concentration of GLU, which decreased after JPZDD and Tia treatments. In the model group, EAAT1 and glial cells were highly co-expressed and the relative fluorescence intensity (FI) of EAAT1 was significantly lower than that in the control group. Treatment with JPZDD and Tia increased the relative FI of EAAT1. The mRNA level of EAAT1 decreased in the model group compared to that in the control group, although it was significantly elevated following JPZDD or Tia treatment. In the model group, there was low co-expression of VGLUT1 and axon cells and the FI of VGLUT1 was remarkably increased relative to that in the control group and reduced following treatment with JPZDD and Tia. A similar trend was observed in the mRNA and protein expression of VGLUT1, although it was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: The mechanism by which JPZDD alleviated behavioral dysfunction of TS rats may be associated with maintaining normal GLU transport by upregulating EAAT1 and downregulating VGLUT1 in the striatum.
Keywords: Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong-Decoction, Tourette syndrome, glutamate, EAAT1, VGLUT1
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