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Iodine Level of Salt and Associated Factors at Household Level in Gidami District, Oromia Region, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors Dinka AW, Kebebe T, Nega G

Received 3 October 2020

Accepted for publication 3 January 2021

Published 19 January 2021 Volume 2021:13 Pages 9—16

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/NDS.S284944

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Gary Johanning


Abulu Waga Dinka,1 Tadesse Kebebe,2 Girma Nega1

1Department of Applied Human Nutrition, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 2Food Science and Nutrition Research Directorate, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Correspondence: Abulu Waga Dinka
Department of Applied Human Nutrition, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar 79, Ethiopia
Email abulu.waga@bdu.edu.et

Purpose: Iodine deficiency disorders remain a major public health problem globally, and more than a quarter of the world’s population is affected by this micronutrient deficiency. The problem is even worse in developing countries including Ethiopia, and the government has been implementing globally recommended universal salt iodization as one strategy to control iodine deficiency disorders. The objective of this study was to assess iodine content of salt used in households, and associated factors.
Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2017 in Gidami district, Western Ethiopia. A total of 470 household food caterers participated in the study by using random sampling method. Data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaire and rapid iodized salt test kit to assess socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, practices and iodine content of the salt. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors of iodine level in the salt using odds ratio with 95% confidence interval.
Results: Among the household salt samples, 83.6% were found to be iodized (> 0ppm) while 29.8% (95% CI: 25.8, 33.9%) were found to be adequately iodized. Respondents who had formal education [AOR=1.82, 95% CI: (1.42, 3.53)], had an occupation [AOR=4.78, 95% CI: (1.55– 14.73)], did not expose salt to sunlight [AOR=1.13, 95% CI: (1.10– 1.27)] had good knowledge of iodized salt [AOR=1.184, 95% CI: (1.103, 1.328)], and had good practice regarding iodized salt [AOR=1.32, 95% CI: (1.717, 2.442)] were more likely to have adequately iodized salt at household level.
Conclusion: According to this study, the availability of adequately iodized salt at household level was below global and national target of universal iodine utilization. This study suggested the importance of paying more attention to availability of iodine fortification and increasing awareness regarding the importance of iodized salt and potential factors such as utilization practice and handling of iodized salt.

Keywords: iodine, iodized salt, Gidami district, Ethiopia

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