Back to Journals » International Journal of Nanomedicine » Volume 9 » Issue 1

Investigation of the mechanism of enhanced skin penetration by ultradeformable liposomes

Authors Subongkot T, Pamornpathomkul B, Rojanarata T, Opanasopit P, Ngawhirunpat T

Received 1 April 2014

Accepted for publication 11 May 2014

Published 25 July 2014 Volume 2014:9(1) Pages 3539—3550

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S65287

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Thirapit Subongkot, Boonnada Pamornpathomkul, Theerasak Rojanarata, Praneet Opanasopit, Tanasait Ngawhirunpat

Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand

Abstract: This study aimed to determine the mechanism by which ultradeformable liposomes (ULs) with terpenes enhance skin penetration for transdermal drug delivery of fluorescein sodium, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Skin treated with ULs containing d-limonene, obtained from in vitro skin penetration studies, was examined via TEM to investigate the effect of ULs on ultrastructural changes of the skin, and to evaluate the mechanism by which ULs enhance skin penetration. The receiver medium collected was analyzed by TEM and CLSM to evaluate the mechanism of the drug carrier system. Our findings revealed that ULs could enhance penetration by denaturing intracellular keratin, degrading corneodesmosomes, and disrupting the intercellular lipid arrangement in the stratum corneum. As inferred from the presence of intact vesicles in the receiver medium, ULs are also able to act as a drug carrier system. CLSM images showed that intact vesicles of ULs might penetrate the skin via a transappendageal pathway, potentially a major route of skin penetration.

Keywords: ultradeformable liposomes, mechanism of enhanced skin penetration, transmission electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

Download Article [PDF]  View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]

 

Readers of this article also read:

Profile of efraloctocog alfa and its potential in the treatment of hemophilia A

George LA, Camire RM

Journal of Blood Medicine 2015, 6:131-141

Published Date: 24 April 2015

Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediate viral entry

Sims B, Gu L, Krendelchtchikov A, Matthews QL

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:4893-4897

Published Date: 21 October 2014

Preparation and evaluation of microemulsion-based transdermal delivery of total flavone of rhizoma arisaematis

Shen LN, Zhang YT, Wang Q, Xu L, Feng NP

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:3453-3464

Published Date: 22 July 2014

Cationic star-shaped polymer as an siRNA carrier for reducing MMP-9 expression in skin fibroblast cells and promoting wound healing in diabetic rats

Li N, Luo HC, Yang C, Deng JJ, Ren M, Xie XY, Lin DZ, Yan L, Zhang LM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:3377-3387

Published Date: 15 July 2014

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene delivery via a polyethylene imine grafted chitosan carrier

Peng YS, Lai PL, Peng S, Wu HC, Yu S, Tseng TY, Wang LF, Chu IM

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:3163-3174

Published Date: 28 June 2014

Lubricin as a novel nanostructured protein coating to reduce fibroblast density

Aninwene II GE, Yang Z, Ravi V, Jay GD, Webster TJ

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:3131-3135

Published Date: 25 June 2014

Rotigotine is safe and efficacious in Atypical Parkinsonism Syndromes induced by both a-synucleinopathy and tauopathy

Moretti DV, Binetti G, Zanetti O, Frisoni GB

Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2014, 10:1003-1009

Published Date: 5 June 2014

Multifunctional materials for bone cancer treatment

Marques C, Ferreira JMF, Andronescu E, Ficai D, Sonmez M, Ficai A

International Journal of Nanomedicine 2014, 9:2713-2725

Published Date: 28 May 2014

Managing hemophilia: the role of mobile technology

Khair K, Holland M

Smart Homecare Technology and TeleHealth 2014, 2:39-44

Published Date: 6 May 2014

Crystallization after intravitreal ganciclovir injection

Pitipol Choopong, Nattaporn Tesavibul, Nattawut Rodanant

Clinical Ophthalmology 2010, 4:709-711

Published Date: 14 July 2010