Investigation of the antibacterial activity of pioglitazone
Majed M Masadeh1, Nizar M Mhaidat2, Sayer I Al-Azzam2, Karem H Alzoubi2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
Purpose: To evaluate the antibacterial potential of pioglitazone, a member of the thiazolidinediones class of drugs, against Gram-positive (Streptococcus pneumoniae) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria.
Methods: Susceptibility testing was done using the antibiotic disk diffusion method and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of pioglitazone was measured according to the broth micro incubation standard method.
Results: Pioglitazone induced a dose-dependent antibacterial activity in which the optimal concentration was 80 µM. Furthermore, results indicated that while E. coli was sensitive (MIC = 31.25 ± 3.87 mg/L) to pioglitazone-induced cytotoxicity, S. pneumoniae and K. pneumoniae were resistant (MIC = 62.5 ± 3.77 mg/L and MIC = 62.5 ± 4.14 mg/L, respectively). Moreover, pretreatment of bacteria with a suboptimal concentration of pioglitazone (40 µM) before adding amoxicillin, cephalexin, co-trimoxazole, or ciprofloxacin enhanced the antibacterial activity of all agents except co-trimoxazole. This enhancing effect was particularly seen against K. pneumoniae.
Conclusion: These results indicate the possibility of a new and potentially important pioglitazone effect and the authors’ ongoing studies aim to illustrate the mechanism(s) by which this antibacterial effect is induced.
Keywords: pioglitazone, susceptibility testing, antibiotics, diabetes
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