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Investigation of proliferation and migration of tongue squamous cell carcinoma promoted by three chemokines, MIP-3α, MIP-1β, and IP-10

Authors Chu H, Jia B, Qiu X, Pan J, Sun X, Wang Z, Zhao J

Received 20 January 2017

Accepted for publication 25 June 2017

Published 29 August 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 4193—4203


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Geoffrey Pietersz

Hongxing Chu,1,* Bo Jia,1,* Xiaoling Qiu,2 Jie Pan,1 Xiang Sun,1 Zhiping Wang,1 Jianjiang Zhao1

1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; 2Department of Endodontology, Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Abstract: The aim of this work was to investigate the role of chemokines in proliferation and migration of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). Out of the 80 cytokines surveyed by a human cytokine antibody array, three chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-3α (MIP-3α), macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β), and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), showed elevated expression in TSCC cells (CAL-27 and UM-1), compared to the oral mucosal epithelial cells. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the high level of expression of MIP-3α in the TSCC tissues, especially in the high clinical stages. Furthermore, Western blot and immunofluorescence staining indicated that C-C chemokine receptor type 5, C-C chemokine receptor type 6, and C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3, which are the receptors for MIP-3α, MIP-1β, and IP-10, respectively, were expressed in the TSCC cells. Viability assay showed MIP-3α, MIP-1β, and IP-10 led to the proliferation of the CAL-27 cells. Interestingly, MIP-1β and IP-10 also induced apoptosis in the TSCC cells. Transwell invasion assay showed MIP-3α and IP-10 could increase the invasive capability of TSCC cells; consistently, the enzymatic activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 increased in the MIP-3α- and IP-10-treated cells. In summary, our results indicate the expression of MIP-3α, MIP-1β, and IP-10 increased in the TSCC cells. The elevated expression of MIP-3α and IP-10 promoted proliferation and migration of TSCC. These chemokines, along with their receptors, could be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for TSCC, especially for those in the high clinical stages.

Keywords: MIP-3α, MIP-1β, IP-10, tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC)

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