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Inverse relationship of cardioankle vascular index with BMI in healthy Japanese subjects: a cross-sectional study

Authors Nagayama D, Imamura H, Sato Y, Yamaguchi T, Ban N, Kawana H, Ohira M, Saiki A, Shirai K, Tatsuno I

Received 13 August 2016

Accepted for publication 29 September 2016

Published 21 December 2016 Volume 2017:13 Pages 1—9

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S119646

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Professor Daniel Duprez


Daiji Nagayama,1,2 Haruki Imamura,2 Yuta Sato,2 Takashi Yamaguchi,2 Noriko Ban,2 Hidetoshi Kawana,2 Masahiro Ohira,2 Atsuhito Saiki,2 Kohji Shirai,3 Ichiro Tatsuno2

1Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shin-Oyama City Hospital, Oyama-City, 2Center of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, 3Department of Vascular Function, Sakura Medical Center, Toho University, Sakura-City, Japan

Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI) with arterial stiffness assessed by cardioankle vascular index (CAVI).
Subjects and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 23,257 healthy Japanese subjects (12,729 men and 10,528 women, aged 47.1 ± 12.5 years, BMI 22.9 ± 3.4 kg/m2) who underwent health screening between 2004 and 2006 in Japan. Exclusion criteria were current medication use and a past history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, and nephritis.
Results: Male subjects showed significantly higher BMI, CAVI, and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol compared with female subjects. Next, the subjects were divided into tertiles of BMI: lower, middle, and upper, in a gender-specific manner. After adjusting for confounders including age, systolic blood pressure, and HDL-cholesterol identified by multiple regression analysis, the mean CAVI decreased progressively as BMI tertile increased in both genders. Furthermore, a negative inverse relationship between BMI and adjusted CAVI was observed throughout the BMI distribution. Multivariate logistic regression model for contributors of high CAVI (≥90th percentile) identified obesity (odds ratios (95% confidence interval): 0.804 (0.720–0.899)], older age [15.6 (14.0–17.4)], male gender [2.26 (2.03–2.51)], hypertension [2.28 (2.06–2.54)], impaired fasting glucose [1.17 (1.01–1.37)], and low HDL-cholesterol [0.843 (0.669–1.06)] as independent factors.
Conclusion: We demonstrated an inverse relationship between CAVI and BMI in healthy Japanese subjects, suggesting that systemic accumulation of adipose tissue per se may lead to a linear decrease of arterial stiffness in nonobese and obese subjects without metabolic disorders.

Keywords: BMI, cardioankle vascular index, arterial stiffness

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