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Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: current perspectives

Authors Buettner S, van Vugt JLA, IJzermans JNM, Groot Koerkamp B

Received 21 November 2016

Accepted for publication 2 January 2017

Published 22 February 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 1131—1142


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Akshita Wason

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Faris Farassati

Stefan Buettner, Jeroen LA van Vugt, Jan NM IJzermans, Bas Groot Koerkamp

Department of Surgery, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

Abstract: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common malignancy arising from the liver. ICC makes up about 10% of all cholangiocarcinomas. It arises from the peripheral bile ducts within the liver parenchyma, proximal to the secondary biliary radicals. Histologically, the majority of ICCs are adenocarcinomas. Only a minority of patients (15%) present with resectable disease, with a median survival of less than 3 years. Multidisciplinary management of ICC is complicated by large differences in disease course for individual patients both across and within tumor stages. Risk models and nomograms have been developed to more accurately predict survival of individual patients based on clinical parameters. Predictive risk factors are necessary to improve patient selection for systemic treatments. Molecular differences between tumors, such as in the epidermal growth factor receptor status, are promising, but their clinical applicability should be validated. For patients with locally advanced disease, several treatment strategies are being evaluated. Both hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy with floxuridine and yttrium-90 embolization aim to downstage locally advanced ICC. Selected patients have resectable disease after downstaging, and other patients might benefit because of postponing widespread dissemination and biliary obstruction.

Keywords: intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, diagnosis, treatment, developments

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