Interleukin-35 as a predictor of prostate cancer in patients undergoing initial prostate biopsy
Authors Zhou CC, Zhang J, Chen Y, Wang H, Hou JQ
Received 1 March 2017
Accepted for publication 25 May 2017
Published 14 July 2017 Volume 2017:10 Pages 3485—3491
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Lucy Goodman
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Chiung-Kuei Huang
Chenchao Zhou,* Jun Zhang,* Ye Chen, Hao Wang, Jianquan Hou
Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Background: Interleukin (IL)-35 is a novel inhibitory cytokine and has recently been implicated in tumor immunity. However, the role of IL-35 in prostate cancer (PCa) has not been elucidated.
Objective: To evaluate the role of plasma IL-35 in the diagnosis and prognosis of PCa in Chinese patients undergoing initial prostate biopsy.
Materials and methods: Using ELISA, plasma IL-35 levels were measured in 180 patients, who underwent a prostate biopsy. The clinical correlation of IL-35 with clinicopathological parameters was also evaluated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed to establish the role of IL-35 as a clinical biomarker.
Results: Seventy-five (41.6%) of patients were histopathologically confirmed to have PCa. Plasma IL-35 levels were significantly higher in PCa patients (134.48±78.48 pg/mL) compared to non-PCa patients (67.22±24.08 pg/mL). ROC analysis showed that IL-35 was an independent predictor of PCa. Furthermore, IL-35 was found to be a significantly independent predictor of PCa in a group of patients with prostate-specific antigen levels between 4 and 10 ng/mL; was also able to predict advanced PCa from localized PCa and bone metastasis positive PCa from negative PCa.
Conclusion: Our data suggest for the first time that plasma IL-35 levels are correlated with PCa and is the independent predictor of PCa progression and metastasis. Thus, IL-35 could be utilized as a potential biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of PCa, could also aid in decision making and predict the stage of the disease.
Keywords: IL-35, prostate cancer, prostate biopsy, diagnosis
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