Interleukin-1β-Treated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Inhibit Inflammation in Hippocampal Astrocytes Through Exosome-Activated Nrf-2 Signaling
Authors Liu K, Cai GL, Zhuang Z, Pei SY, Xu SN, Wang YN, Wang H, Wang X, Cui C, Sun MC, Guo SH, Jia KP, Wang XZ, Cai GF
Received 1 November 2020
Accepted for publication 8 January 2021
Published 22 February 2021 Volume 2021:16 Pages 1423—1434
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Webster
Kai Liu,1,* Guo-Liang Cai,2,3 Zhe Zhuang,4,* Si-Ying Pei,1 Sheng-Nan Xu,5 Ya-Nan Wang,1 Hong Wang,1 Xin Wang,1 Cheng Cui,5 Man-Chao Sun,5 Si-Hui Guo,5 Kun-Ping Jia,1 Xiu-Zhen Wang,1 Guo-Feng Cai1
1Hanan Branch of Second Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Harbin, 150001, People’s Republic of China; 2Postdoctoral Research Workstation of Harbin Sport University, Harbin, 150001, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Sport Science and Health, Harbin Sport University, Harbin, 150008, People’s Republic of China; 4Second Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Harbin, 150001, People’s Republic of China; 5Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Harbin, 150001, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Correspondence: Guo-Feng Cai
Hanan Branch of Second Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Harbin, 150001, People’s Republic of China
Background: Interleukin-1β (IL-1)-treated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and IL-1-MSCs-conditioned medium (CM) exert anti-inflammatory roles. Astrocytes are essential for the modulation of synaptic activity and neuronal homeostasis in the brain. Exosomes are the critical mediators in intercellular communication. However, the mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of IL-1-treated MSCs remains unknown.
Methods: In this study, exosomes (IL-1-Exo) were isolated from IL-1-treated MSCs. In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated hippocampal astrocytes and status epilepticus (SE) mice were treated with IL-1-Exo. Inflammatory activity, astrogliosis, and cognitive performance were measured to determine the effect of IL-1-Exo on inflammation.
Results: The results revealed that IL-1-Exo significantly inhibited LPS-induced astrogliosis and inflammatory responses of astrocytes. Also, IL-1-Exo reversed the LPS-induced effect on calcium signaling. The Nrf2 signaling pathway was associated with the effect of IL-1-Exo in LPS-treated astrocytes. Furthermore, IL-1-Exo reduced the inflammatory response and improved the cognitive performance of SE mice.
Conclusion: The results suggest that IL-1-Exo inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory responses in astrocytes and SE mice and that the effect of IL-1-Exo was primarily mediated through the Nrf-2 signaling pathway. This study provides a new understanding of the molecular mechanism of inflammation-associated brain diseases and an avenue to develop nanotherapeutic agents for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in the brain.
Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, interleukin-1β, exosome, astrocyte, inflammation, Nrf-2
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