Intention and Practice on Personal Preventive Measures Against the COVID-19 Pandemic Among Adults with Chronic Conditions in Southern Ethiopia: A Survey Using the Theory of Planned Behavior
Received 30 September 2020
Accepted for publication 11 November 2020
Published 3 December 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 1863—1877
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Eshetu Andarge,1 Teshale Fikadu,1 Rodas Temesgen,2 Mulugeta Shegaze,1 Tesfaye Feleke,1 Firehiwot Haile,1 Gisila Endashaw,3 Negussie Boti,1 Alemayehu Bekele,4 Mustefa Glagn1
1School of Public Health, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional State, Ethiopia; 2Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional State, Ethiopia; 3School of Nursing, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional State, Ethiopia; 4Center for Neglected Tropical Diseases, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional State, Ethiopia
Correspondence: Eshetu Andarge
School of Public Health, Arba Minch University, P.O. Box: 021, Arba Minch, Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional State, Ethiopia
Purpose: With prevention being the only and best available intervention, COVID-19 has recently become a global threat, having had and continuing to have enormous health, economic, and societal impacts. Evidence so far has documented a heightened risk of mortality to people with chronic conditions. There is a dearth of evidence regarding chronic disease patients’ intention and practice on the preventive measures. This study tried to fill this gap by assessing the intention to practice and practice on personal preventive measures (PPMs) among adults with chronic conditions.
Materials and Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia among 806 adults with chronic conditions by employing a multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using a pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS software version 25. Binary logistic regression analysis was done to identify factors associated with intention and practice. Level of statistical significance was declared at a P-value of less than 0.05.
Results: The study showed that 52% (95% CI=47.61– 54.80) and 76.3% (95% CI=73.36– 79.24) of adults with chronic conditions were intending to practice and had ever practiced the personal preventive measures. Participants’ subjective norm (SN) (AOR=4.94; 95% CI=3.49– 6.96) and perceived behavioral control (PBC) (AOR=4.13; 95% CI=2.69– 6.34) were the factors associated with their intention. Good knowledge and a positive attitude were found to be significant factors associated with the participants’ actual practice of the PPMs among other independent factors.
Conclusion: Around half of the participants were intending to practice PPMs, and three-quarters had good practice on the PPMs against COVID-19. Interventions targeted to improve intention and practice on the PPMs need to take into account improving knowledge and attitude, and build positive subjective norms and heighten the confidence to control the preventive behaviors.
Keywords: intention, practice, theory of planned behavior, chronic conditions, South Ethiopia