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Integrating diet and exercise into care of prostate cancer patients on androgen deprivation therapy

Authors Moyad MA, Newton R, Tunn U, Gruca D

Received 5 March 2016

Accepted for publication 6 May 2016

Published 16 August 2016 Volume 2016:8 Pages 133—143

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/RRU.S107852

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Jan Colli

Mark A Moyad,1 Robert U Newton,2 Ulf W Tunn,3 Damian Gruca4

1Department of Urology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia; 3Urological Clinic, Facharztzentrum Academic Hospital Sana Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach/Main, 4Global Medical Affairs, AbbVie Deutschland, Ludwigshafen, Germany

Abstract: Improved diagnosis and treatment regimens have resulted in greater longevity for men with prostate cancer. This has led to an increase in both androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) use and duration of exposure, and therefore to its associated adverse effects, such as sexual dysfunction, osteoporosis, reduced muscle mass, increased fat mass, and increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Given that the adverse effects of ADT are systemic, often debilitating, and difficult to treat, efforts continue in the development of new strategies for long-term management of prostate cancer. The PubMed database was searched to select trials, reviews, and meta-analyses in English using such search terms as “prostate cancer” and “androgen deprivation therapy”, “cardiovascular risk”, “lean body mass”, “exercise”, and “diet”. The initial searches produced 379 articles with dates 2005 or more recent. Articles published after 2004 were favored. This review utilizes the latest data to provide a status update on the effects of exercise and diet on patients with prostate cancer, focusing on ADT-associated side effects, and it discusses the evidence for such interventions. Since the evidence of large-scale trials in patients with prostate cancer is missing, and an extrapolation of supporting data to all patient subgroups cannot be provided, individualized risk assessments remain necessary before the initiation of exercise and diet programs. Exercise, diet, and nutritional supplementation interventions have the potential to provide effective, accessible, and relatively inexpensive strategies for mitigating ADT-associated toxicities without introducing additional adverse effects.

Keywords: androgen deprivation therapy, ADT, diet, exercise, nutrition, prostate cancer, dietary supplements

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