Inhibitory effects of silibinin on proliferation and lung metastasis of human high metastasis cell line of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma via autophagy induction
Authors Jiang C, Jin S, Jiang Z, Wang J
Received 24 February 2016
Accepted for publication 6 July 2016
Published 26 October 2016 Volume 2016:9 Pages 6609—6618
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Manfred Beleut
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Professor Min Li
Canhua Jiang,1 Shufang Jin,1 Zhisheng Jiang,1 Jie Wang2
1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, 2Department of Immunology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China
Objective: To investigate the possible mechanisms and effects of silibinin (SIL) on the proliferation and lung metastasis of human lung high metastasis cell line of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC-M).
Methods: A methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay was performed to detect the inhibitory effects of SIL on the proliferation of ACC-M cells in vitro. Fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the autophagic process. Western blot was performed to detect the expression of microtube-related protein 1 light-chain 3 (LC3). An experimental adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) lung metastasis model was established in nude mice to detect the impacts of SIL on lung weight and lung cancer nodules. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expressions of LC3 in human ACC samples and normal salivary gland tissue samples.
Results: SIL inhibited the proliferation of ACC-M cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and inductively increased the autophagic bodies in ACC-M cells. Furthermore, SIL could increase the expression of LC3 in ACC-M cells and promote the conversion of LC3-I into LC3-II in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In the ACC lung metastasis model, the lung weight and left and right lung nodules in the SIL-treated group were significantly less than those in the control group (P<0.05). The expressions of LC3-I and LC3-II as well as the positive expression rate of LC3 (80%) significantly increased, but the positive expression of LC3 in human ACC (42.22%) reduced significantly.
Conclusion: SIL could inhibit the proliferation and lung metastasis of ACC-M cells by possibly inducing tumor cells autophagy.
Keywords: silibinin, adenoid cystic carcinoma, ACC-M cells, autophagy, microtube-related protein 1 light-chain 3
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