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Inhaled glycopyrrolate for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Authors Tashkin DP, Gross NJ

Received 16 January 2018

Accepted for publication 19 April 2018

Published 12 June 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 1873—1888


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 4

Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell

Donald P Tashkin,1 Nicholas J Gross2

1Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Medicine, University Medical Research LLC, Saint Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Hartford, CT, USA

Abstract: Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs), along with long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs), are the mainstay for treatment of patients with COPD. Glycopyrrolate, or glycopyrronium bromide, like other LAMAs, inhibits parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding of acetylcholine to muscarinic receptors. Glycopyrrolate is unusual in that it preferentially binds to M3 over M2 muscarinic receptors, thereby specifically targeting the primary muscarinic receptor responsible for bronchoconstriction occurring in COPD. Inhaled glycopyrrolate is slowly absorbed from the lungs and rapidly eliminated from the bloodstream, most likely by renal excretion in its unmetabolized form, limiting the potential for systemic adverse events. Inhaled glycopyrrolate is a fast-acting, efficacious treatment option for patients with moderate–severe COPD. It improves lung function, reduces the risk of exacerbations, and alleviates the symptoms of breathlessness, which in turn may explain the improvement seen in patients’ quality of life. Inhaled formulations containing glycopyrrolate are well tolerated, and despite being an anticholinergic, few cardiovascular-related events have been reported. Inhaled glycopyrrolate is thus of value as both monotherapy and in combination with other classes of medication for maintenance treatment of COPD. This review covers the mechanism of action of inhaled glycopyrrolate, including its pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and safety profiles, and effects on mucus secretion. It also discusses the use of inhaled glycopyrrolate in the treatment of COPD, as monotherapy and in fixed-dose combinations with LABAs and inhaled corticosteroid–LABAs, including a triple therapy recently approved in Europe.

Keywords: glycopyrronium bromide, long-acting muscarinicantagonist, anticholinergic, bronchodilator

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