Influence of comorbid heart disease on dyspnea and health status in patients with COPD – a cohort study
Received 29 May 2018
Accepted for publication 3 September 2018
Published 28 November 2018 Volume 2018:13 Pages 3857—3865
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Colin Mak
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell
Maaike Giezeman,1,2 Mikael Hasselgren,1 Karin Lisspers,3 Björn Ställberg,3 Scott Montgomery,4–6 Christer Janson,7 Josefin Sundh8
1School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 2Centre for Clinical Research, County Council of Värmland, Karlstad, Sweden; 3Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 4Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 5Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 6Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College, London, UK; 7Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 8Department of Respiratory Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the changing influence over time of comorbid heart disease on symptoms and health status in patients with COPD.
Patients and methods: This is a prospective cohort study of 495 COPD patients with a baseline in 2005 and follow-up in 2012. The study population was divided into three groups: patients without heart disease (no-HD), those diagnosed with heart disease during the study period (new-HD) and those with heart disease at baseline (HD). Symptoms were measured using the mMRC. Health status was measured using the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT; only available in 2012). Logistic regression with mMRC ≥2 and linear regression with CCQ and CAT scores in 2012 as dependent variables were performed unadjusted, adjusted for potential confounders, and additionally adjusted for baseline mMRC, respectively, CCQ scores.
Results: Mean mMRC worsened from 2005 to 2012 as follows: for the no-HD group from 1.8 (±1.3) to 2.0 (±1.4), (P=0.003), for new-HD from 2.2 (±1.3) to 2.4 (±1.4), (P=0.16), and for HD from 2.2 (±1.3) to 2.5 (±1.4), (P=0.03). In logistic regression adjusted for potential confounding factors, HD (OR 1.71; 95% CI: 1.03–2.86) was associated with mMRC ≥2. Health status worsened from mean CCQ as follows: for no-HD from 1.9 (±1.2) to 2.1 (±1.3) with (P=0.01), for new-HD from 2.3 (±1.5) to 2.6 (±1.6) with (P=0.07), and for HD from 2.4 (±1.1) to 2.5 (±1.2) with (P=0.57). In linear regression adjusted for potential confounders, HD (regression coefficient 0.12; 95% CI: 0.04–5.91) and new-HD (0.15; 0.89–5.92) were associated with higher CAT scores. In CCQ functional state domain, new-HD (0.14; 0.18–1.16) and HD (0.12; 0.04–0.92) were associated with higher scores. After additional correction for baseline mMRC and CCQ, no statistically significant associations were found.
Conclusion: Heart disease contributes to lower health status and higher symptom burden in COPD but does not accelerate the worsening over time.
Keywords: COPD Assessment Test, CAT, Clinical COPD Questionnaire, CCQ, modified Medical Research Council dyspnea score, mMRC, ischemic heart disease, heart failure
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