Inflammatory status in older women with and without metabolic syndrome: is there a correlation with risk factors?
Alessandro de Oliveira Silva,1,2 Ramires Alsamir Tibana,1 Margo Gomes Oliveira Karnikowski,3 Silvana Schwerz Funghetto,3 Jonato Prestes1
1Graduation Program in Physical Education and Health, Catholic University of Brasilia, 2Physical Education Department, Universitary Center of Brasilia, 3Ceilandia Faculty, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil
Purpose: To compare the inflammatory status in older women with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to correlate inflammatory parameters, anthropometric measures, metabolic profile, and blood pressure with MetS Z-score.
Methods: This cohort transversal study included 129 older women assigned into two groups: with MetS (n = 48; 66.4 ± 4.4 years; 68.1 ± 8.3 kg; 1.51 ± 0.06 m; 29.8 ± 3.9 kg/m2) and without MetS (n = 81; 68.0 ± 5.8 years; 61.0 ± 9.4 kg; 1.53 ± 0.06 m; 26.0 ± 3.9 kg/m2). Body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (General Electric-GE model 8548 BX1L, year 2005, Lunar DPX type, software Encore 2005; Rommelsdorf, Germany) and cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: There was no difference between the groups regarding age, height, fat mass, glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, older women with MetS presented higher body mass, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, waist–hip and waist–height ratio, systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, MetS Z-score, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and lower lean body mass values compared to women without MetS. Moreover, there were correlations between MetS Z-score and body mass (r = 0.20), waist circumference (r = 0.26), waist–hip (r = 0.32) and waist–height ratio (r = 0.24), blood glucose (r = 0.24), insulin (r = 0.24), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = 0.32), triglycerides (r = 0.39), tumor necrosis factor-α (r = 0.28), interferon-γ (r = 0.22), and inverse correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = −0.32). MetS Z-score was positively associated with systolic (r = 0.92), diastolic (r = 0.94), and mean blood pressure (r = 0.98).
Conclusion: Older women with MetS have higher cytokine levels, anthropometric measures, metabolic profile, and blood pressure. Inflammatory cytokines may help to improve the understanding of the progression status of MetS in older persons.
Keywords: metabolic syndrome, cytokines, aging
This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.Download Article [PDF] View Full Text [HTML][Machine readable]