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Inflammatory Markers Related to Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Atherosclerosis: Implications for Disease Prediction and Prospective Therapeutics

Authors Hong LZ, Xue Q, Shao H

Received 3 December 2020

Accepted for publication 21 January 2021

Published 16 February 2021 Volume 2021:14 Pages 379—392


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Professor Ning Quan

Ling-Zhi Hong,1,* Qi Xue,2,* Hong Shao2

1Emergency Department, Chun’an First People’s Hospital (Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital Chun’an Branch), Hangzhou, 311700, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Cardiology, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, People’s Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, 310014, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence: Hong Shao
Department of Cardiology, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital (People’s Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College), No. 158 Shangtang Road, Hangzhou, 310014, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China
Tel/Fax +86-571-85894283

Abstract: Several lines of evidence have linked a dysregulated inflammatory setting to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, which is a form of chronic vascular inflammation. Various inflammatory biomarkers have been associated with inflammation and are recognized as potential tools to monitor the progression of atherosclerosis. A well-studied inflammatory marker in the context of cardiovascular diseases is C-reactive protein (CRP) or, more accurately, highly sensitive-CRP (hs-CRP), which has been established as an inflammatory biomarker for atherosclerotic events. In addition, a growing body of investigations has attempted to disclose the potential of inflammatory cytokines, enzymes, and genetic polymorphisms related to innate and adaptive immunity as biomarkers for predicting the development of atherosclerosis. In this review article, we clarify both traditional and novel inflammatory biomarkers related to components of the innate and adaptive immune system that may mirror the progression or phases of atherosclerotic inflammation/lesions. Furthermore, the contribution of the inflammatory biomarkers in developing potential therapeutics against atherosclerotic treatment will be discussed.

Keywords: atherosclerosis, inflammation, immune response, biomarker, hs-CRP

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