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Infectious uveitis in Virginia

Authors Engelhard S, Haddad Z, Bajwa A, Patrie J, Xin W, Reddy A

Received 14 April 2015

Accepted for publication 14 May 2015

Published 28 August 2015 Volume 2015:9 Pages 1589—1594


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser

Stephanie B Engelhard,1 Zeina Haddad,1 Asima Bajwa,1 James Patrie,2 Wenjun Xin,2 Ashvini K Reddy1

1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA

Purpose: To report the causes, clinical features, and outcomes of infectious uveitis in patients managed in a mid-Atlantic tertiary care center.
Methods: Retrospective, observational study of infectious uveitis patients seen at the University of Virginia from 1984 to 2014.
Results: Seventy-seven of 491 patients (15.7%) were diagnosed with infectious uveitis (mean age 58 years, 71.4% female, 76.6% Caucasian). The mean follow-up was 5 years. Anterior uveitis was the most common anatomic classification (39 patients, 50.6%) followed by panuveitis (20 patients, 26.0%) and posterior uveitis (18 patients, 23.4%). The most common infectious etiology was herpetic anterior uveitis (37 patients, 48.1%) followed by toxoplasma uveitis (14 patients, 18.2%). The most prevalent viral pathogen was varicella-zoster virus (21 patients, 27.3%) followed by herpes simplex virus (20 patients, 26.0%). Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) was diagnosed in 14 patients (18.2%). Aqueous humor yielded an etiologic diagnosis in seven (50%) of ARN patients, four of whom tested positive for cytomegalovirus and three for varicella-zoster virus. On presentation, 43 patients (55.8%) had a visual acuity (VA) better than 20/40 and 17 (22.1%) had a VA worse than 20/200. VA at the final follow-up was better than 20/40 in 39 patients (50.6%) and worse than 20/200 in 22 patients (28.6%). In all, 16 (20.8%) and 10 (13.0%) patients required cataract and vitrectomy surgery, respectively. A total of 14 patients (18.2%) were on glaucoma topical treatment and four (5.2%) required glaucoma surgery.
Conclusion: The most common type of infectious uveitis seen over the study period was herpetic anterior uveitis secondary to varicella-zoster virus or herpes simplex virus, found to be most prevalent in patients over 60 years of age. This finding is comparable to other American epidemiologic studies. Ocular toxoplasmosis and ARN were also common causes of infectious uveitis. In all, 50.6% of patients had a VA better than 20/40 at the final follow-up visit, indicating the importance of prompt referral and appropriate treatment.

Keywords: uveitis, infectious, chorioretinitis, endophthalmitis, toxoplasma

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