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Increased mortality among acute respiratory distress patients from immigrant dense urban districts

Authors Wessman T, Tofik R, Gränsbo K, Melander O

Received 15 September 2018

Accepted for publication 26 December 2018

Published 11 March 2019 Volume 2019:11 Pages 43—49


Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Hans-Christoph Pape

Torgny Wessman,1,2 Rafid Tofik,1,2 Klas Gränsbo,2,3 Olle Melander2,3

1Department of Emergency Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden

Purpose: This study investigated whether living in immigrant dense urban districts (IDUDs) and low-income areas in the city of Malmö predicted 5-year mortality among patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) because of acute respiratory distress.
Patients and methods: We randomly selected 184 patients with acute respiratory distress during 2007, visiting the ED at Skåne University Hospital, Malmö. In 2007, Malmö had 36% first- and second-generation immigrants. The main exposure was defined as being resident in any of the five IDUDs of Malmö compared to being resident in the five districts of Malmö with the highest proportion of Sweden-born inhabitants (SDUDs). We recorded vital parameters; medical triage priority according to Adaptive Process Triage (ADAPT), ICD-10 diagnoses, and the mean annual income for the patient’s urban district. We examined 5-year mortality risk using Cox proportional hazards model.
Results: After adjustment for age and gender, patients from IDUDs (n=100, 54%) had an HR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.087–2.494; P=0.019) regarding mortality at 5-year follow-up. Patients in the lowest vs highest income quartile had an HR of 2.00 (1.06–3.79; P=0.032) regarding mortality at 5-year follow-up. Age, male gender, presence of cardiopulmonary disease, and ADAPT priority also independently predicted the 5-year mortality. The excess risk of 5-year mortality associated with living in IDUDs remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, ADAPT priority, presence of cardiopulmonary disease, and income with an HR of 1.79 (1.15–2.78; P=0.010).
Conclusion: Living in an IDUD is a strong independent risk factor for 5-year mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress. The cause is unknown. Our study suggests a need for better structured follow-up of cardiopulmonary disease in such patients.

Keywords: dyspnea, emergency department, mortality, socioeconomic, income, ADAPT

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