Incidence of utilization- and symptom-defined COPD exacerbations in hospital- and population-recruited patients
Authors Erdal M, Johannessen A, Eagan T, Bakke P, Gulsvik A, Grønseth R
Received 17 March 2016
Accepted for publication 21 May 2016
Published 2 September 2016 Volume 2016:11(1) Pages 2099—2108
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Richard Russell
Marta Erdal1,2 Ane Johannessen3 Tomas Mikal Eagan1,2 Per Bakke2 Amund Gulsvik2 Rune Grønseth1,2
1Department of Thoracic Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, 2Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, 3Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to estimate the impact of recruitment source and outcome definition on the incidence of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) and explore possible predictors of AECOPD.
Patients and methods: During a 1-year follow-up, we performed a baseline visit and four telephone interviews of 81 COPD patients and 132 controls recruited from a population-based survey and 205 hospital-recruited COPD patients. Both a definition based on health care utilization and a symptom-based definition of AECOPD were applied. For multivariate analyses, we chose a negative binomial regression model.
Results: COPD patients from the population- and hospital-based samples experienced on average 0.4 utilization-defined and 2.9 symptom-defined versus 1.0 and 5.9 annual exacerbations, respectively. The incidence rate ratios for utilization-defined AECOPD were 2.45 (95% CI 1.22–4.95), 3.43 (95% CI 1.59–7.38), and 5.67 (95% CI 2.58–12.48) with Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease spirometric stages II, III, and IV, respectively. The corresponding incidence rate ratios for the symptom-based definition were 3.08 (95% CI 1.96–4.84), 3.45 (95% CI 1.92–6.18), and 4.00 (95% CI 2.09–7.66). Maintenance therapy (regular long-acting muscarinic antagonists, long-acting beta-2 agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, or theophylline) also increased the risk of AECOPD with both exacerbation definitions (incidence rate ratios 1.65 and 1.73, respectively). The risk of AECOPD was 59%–78% higher in the hospital sample than in the population sample.
Conclusion: If externally valid conclusions are to be made regarding incidence and predictors of AECOPD, studies should be based on general population samples or adjustments should be made on account of a likely higher incidence in other samples. Likewise, the effect of different AECOPD definitions should be taken into consideration.
Keywords: COPD, exacerbations, general population, predictors