Incidence of Mortality and Its Predictors Among Adult Visceral Leishmaniasis Patients at the University of Gondar Hospital: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Received 14 January 2020
Accepted for publication 6 March 2020
Published 24 March 2020 Volume 2020:13 Pages 881—891
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewer comments 2
Editor who approved publication: Dr Joachim Wink
Yigizie Yeshaw,1 Adino Tesfahun Tsegaye,2 Solomon Gedlu Nigatu2
1Department of Medical Physiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
Correspondence: Yigizie Yeshaw Email email@example.com
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease, affecting the poor and productive age group of a country, resulting in a huge impact on its economic development. Even though anti-leishmanial drugs reduce the incidence of mortality among VL patients, there is still death of these patients while on treatment. In this aspect, there are limited studies in Ethiopia; therefore, this study aimed to determine the incidence of mortality and its predictors among adult VL patients at the University of Gondar Hospital.
Methods: Institution-based retrospective cohort study was conducted among 586 adult visceral leishmaniasis patients who were admitted to the University of Gondar Hospital from 2013 to 2018. Data were collected from the patients’ charts and registration books, and analyzed using Stata 14 software. Kaplan–Meier failure curve and Log rank test was used to compare the survival probability of patients with independent variables. A multivariable stratified Cox regression model was used to identify predictors of mortality among VL patients. P≤ 0.05 was employed to declare statistically significant factors. Adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated for potential risk factors included in the multivariable model.
Results: A total of 586 VL patients were included in the study. The age of patients ranged from 18 to 55 years with a median age of 27 years. The incidence of mortality was 6.6 (95% CI: 5.2– 8.4) per 1000 person-days of observation. Independent predictors of mortality were presence of comorbidity (AHR=2.29 (95% CI: 1.27– 4.11)), relapse VL (AHR=3.03 (95% CI: 1.25– 7.35)), treatment toxicity (AHR=5.87 (95% CI: 3.30– 10.44)), nasal bleeding (AHR=2.58 (95% CI: 1.48– 4.51)), jaundice (AHR=2.84 (95% CI: 1.57– 5.16)) and being bedridden at admission (AHR=3.26 (95% CI: 1.86– 5.73)).
Conclusion: The incidence of mortality among VL patients was high. Mortality was higher among VL patients with concomitant disease, relapse VL, treatment toxicity, nasal bleeding, jaundice, and those who were bedridden at admission, which implies that great care should be taken for these risky groups through strict follow-up and treatments.
Keywords: mortality, visceral leishmaniasis, Ethiopia
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