Incidence of and risk factors for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine retinopathy in Thai rheumatologic patients
Received 16 August 2016
Accepted for publication 24 September 2016
Published 2 November 2016 Volume 2016:10 Pages 2179—2185
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single-blind
Peer reviewers approved by Dr Lucy Goodman
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Dr Scott Fraser
Nuanpan Tangtavorn, Yosanan Yospaiboon, Tanapat Ratanapakorn, Suthasinee Sinawat, Thuss Sanguansak, Chavakij Bhoomibunchoo, Wipada Laovirojjanakul
KKU Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
Objective: To study the incidences of and risk factors for chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy in Thai rheumatologic patients.
Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 234 rheumatologic patients receiving either CQ or HCQ was conducted. Patients were divided based on whether or not they developed retinopathy as retinopathy-positive or negative groups. Medical records giving details regarding age, gender, body weight, underlying diseases, daily doses, and cumulative doses of CQ or HCQ were reviewed. CQ and HCQ retinopathy were diagnosed by indirect ophthalmoscopy, Humphrey visual field test, and optical coherence tomography. The main outcome measures were incidences and risk factors of CQ and HCQ retinopathy.
Results: The CQ retinopathy was detected in 14 of 173 patients (8.09%) who received CQ for 139–2,033 days, cumulative doses from 14.3 to 325.1 g, and daily doses from 0.8 to 18.5 mg/kg/d. Their ages ranged from 27 to 65 years. When compared to the CQ retinopathy-negative group, only age, body weight, and cumulative dose showed statistically significant differences. The HCQ retinopathy-positive group was comprised of 2 of 61 patients (3.28%) who received HCQ for 660–828 days, cumulative doses from 80 to 130 g, and daily dose from 1.9 to 4.4 mg/kg/d. Their ages were 36 and 39 years. Compared to the HCQ retinopathy-negative group, there were no statistically significant differences in studied risk factors.
Conclusion: Incidences of and risk factors for CQ and HCQ retinopathy were reported. Since most patients developed retinopathy earlier than 5 years, it is suggested that patients taking long-term CQ or HCQ should undergo ophthalmologic screening annually after the baseline examination.
Keywords: chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, retinopathy, incidence, risk factors
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