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In vivo evaluation of a novel nanocomposite porous 3D scaffold in a rabbit model: histological analysis

Authors Mahmood SK, Razak ISA, Ghaji MS, Yusof LM, Mahmood ZK, Rameli MA, Zakaria ZA

Received 6 July 2017

Accepted for publication 9 September 2017

Published 1 December 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 8587—8598

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S145663

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Thomas Webster


Saffanah Khuder Mahmood,1,2 Intan-Shameha Abdul Razak,1 Mustafa Saddam Ghaji,1,3 Loqman Mohamed Yusof,4 Zaid Khudhur Mahmood,5 Mohd Adha Bin P Rameli,6 Zuki Abu Bakar Zakaria1,6

1Department of Veterinary Preclinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang, Malaysia; 2Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq; 3Department of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq; 4Department of Companion Animal Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 5Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 6Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Biosciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang, Malaysia

Abstract: The healing of load-bearing segmental defects in long bones is a challenge due to the complex nature of the weight that affects the bone part and due to bending, shearing, axial, and torsional forces. An innovative porous 3D scaffolds implant of CaCO3 aragonite nanocomposite derived from cockle shell was advanced for substitute bone solely for load-bearing cases. The biomechanical characteristics of such materials were designed to withstand cortical bone strength. In promoting bone growth to the implant material, an ideal surface permeability was formed by means of freeze drying and by adding copolymers to the materials. The properties of coating and copolymers supplement were also assessed for bone-implant connection resolutions. To examine the properties of the material in advanced biological system, an experimental trial in an animal model was carried out. Critical sized defect of bone was created in rabbit’s radial bone to assess the material for a load-bearing application with a short and extended period assessment with histological evaluation of the incorporated implanted material to the bone of the host. Trials in animal models proved that the material has the capability of enduring load-bearing conditions for long-term use devoid of breaking or generating stress that affects the host bone. Histological examination further confirmed the improved integration of the implanted materials to the host bone with profound bone development into and also above the implanted scaffold, which was attained with negligible reaction of the tissues to a foreign implanted material.

Keywords: bionanocomposite, coated scaffolds, bone replacement, segmental bone defect, histology

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