In vivo enhancement of anticancer therapy using bare or chemotherapeutic drug-bearing nanodiamond particles
Yingqi Li,1,2 Yaoli Tong,1 Ruixia Cao,1 Zhimei Tian,2 Binsheng Yang,2 Pin Yang2
1Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 2Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Institute of Molecular Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, People's Republic of China
Background: This study investigated the use of nanodiamond particles (NDs) as a promising material for drug delivery in vivo and in vitro.
Methods: HepG2 cells (a human hepatic carcinoma cell line) were used to determine the characteristics of a nanodiamond-doxorubicin complex (ND-DOX) when taken up by cells in vitro using laser scanning confocal microscopy and dialysis experiments. We also compared the survival rate and histopathology of tumor-bearing mice after treatment with NDs or ND-DOX in vivo.
Results: In vitro investigation showed that ND-DOX has slow and sustained drug release characteristics compared with free doxorubicin. In vivo, the survival rate of tumor-bearing mice treated with ND-DOX was four times greater than that of mice treated with free doxorubicin. Interestingly, the survival rate in mice treated with NDs alone was close to that of mice treated with free doxorubicin. This indicates that treatment with ND-DOX can prolong the lifespan of tumor-bearing mice significantly compared with conventional doxorubicin and that NDs can have this effect as well. Histopathological analysis showed that neither the NDs nor ND-DOX were toxic to the kidney, liver, or spleen in contrast with the well-known toxic effects of free doxorubicin on the kidney and liver. Further, both the bare NDs and ND-DOX could suppress tumor growth effectively.
Conclusion: NDs can potentially prolong survival, and ND-DOX may act as a nanodrug with promising chemotherapeutic efficacy and safety.
Keywords: nanodiamond, drug delivery, sustained release, survival rate, cancer, treatment
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