In vivo and in vitro investigations of a nanostructured coating material – a preclinical study
Martin Adam,1 Cornelia Ganz,1 Weiguo Xu,1 Hamid-Reza Sarajian,2 Werner Götz,3 Thomas Gerber1
1Institute of Physics, Rostock University, Rostock, Germany; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Plastic Surgery, Rostock University, Rostock, Germany; 3Department of Orthodontics, Center of Dento-Maxillo-Facial Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
Abstract: Immediate loading of dental implants is only possible if a firm bone-implant anchorage at early stages is developed. This implies early and high bone apposition onto the implant surface. A nanostructured coating material based on an osseoinductive bone grafting is investigated in relation to the osseointegration at early stages. The goal is to transmit the structure (silica matrix with embedded hydroxyapatite) and the properties of the bone grafting into a coating material. The bone grafting substitute offers an osseoinductive potential caused by an exchange of the silica matrix in vivo accompanied by vascularization. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis show that the coating material consists of a high porous silica matrix with embedded nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite with the same morphology as human hydroxyapatite. An in vitro investigation shows the early interaction between coating and human blood. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis showed that the silica matrix was replaced by an organic matrix within a few minutes. Uncoated and coated titanium implants were inserted into the femora of New Zealand White rabbits. The bone-to-implant contact (BIC) was measured after 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The BIC of the coated implants was increased significantly at 2 and 4 weeks. After 6 weeks, the BIC was decreased to the level of the control group. A histological analysis revealed high bone apposition on the coated implant surface after 2 and 4 weeks. Osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities on the coating material indicated that the coating participates in the bone-remodeling process. The nanostructure of the coating material led to an exchange of the silica matrix by an autologous, organic matrix without delamination of the coating. This is the key issue in understanding initial bone formation on a coated surface.
Keywords: silica, hydroxyapatite, dental implants, matrix change, osseointegration, in vivo
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