In vitro–in vivo evaluation of chitosan-PLGA nanoparticles for potentiated gastric retention and anti-ulcer activity of diosmin
Received 29 April 2019
Accepted for publication 24 July 2019
Published 4 September 2019 Volume 2019:14 Pages 7191—7213
Checked for plagiarism Yes
Review by Single anonymous peer review
Peer reviewer comments 3
Editor who approved publication: Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Webster
Walaa Ebrahim Abd El Hady, Elham Abdelmonem Mohamed, Osama Abd El-Aazeem Soliman, Hassan Mohamed EL-Sabbagh
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
Correspondence: Elham Abdelmonem Mohamed
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Gomhoreyah St., Mansoura 35516, Egypt
Tel +20 106 569 0987
Fax +20 50 224 7496
Background: Diosmin showed poor water solubility and low bioavailability. Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles were successfully used to improve the drugs solubility and bioavailability. Coating of PLGA nanoparticles with chitosan can ameliorate their gastric retention and cellular uptake.
Methodology: PLGA nanoparticles of diosmin were prepared using different drug and polymer amounts. Nanoparticles were selected based on entrapment efficiency% (EE%) and particle size measurements to be coated with chitosan. The selected nanoparticles either uncoated or coated were evaluated regarding morphology, ζ-potential, solid-state characterization, in vitro release, storage stability, and mucoadhesion. The anti-ulcer activity (AA) against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats was assessed through macroscopical evaluation, histopathological examination, immunohistochemical localization of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and transmission electron microscopic examination of gastric tissues compared to free diosmin (100 mg/kg) and positive control.
Results: Based on EE% and particle size measurements, the selected nanoparticles, either uncoated or coated with 0.1% w/v chitosan, were based on 1:15 drug-PLGA weight ratio and 20 mg diosmin employing methylene chloride as an organic phase. Examination by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed nanoscopic spherical particles. Drug encapsulation within the selected nanoparticles was suggested by Fourier transform-infrared, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry results. Chitosan-coated nanoparticles were more stable against size enlargement probably due to the higher ζ-potential. Only coated nanoparticles showed gastric retention as revealed by SEM examination of stomach and duodenum. The superior AA of coated nanoparticles was confirmed by significant reduction in average mucosal damage, the majority of histopathological changes and NF-κB expression in gastric tissue when compared to positive control, diosmin and uncoated nanoparticles as well as insignificant difference relative to normal control. Coated nanoparticles preserved the normal ultrastructure of the gastric mucosa as revealed by TEM examination.
Conclusion: The optimized chitosan-coated PLGA nanoparticles can be represented as a potential oral drug delivery system of diosmin.
Keywords: diosmin, poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide), chitosan-coating, polymeric nanoparticles, gastric retention, anti-ulcer activity