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In situ green synthesis of antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan–nanosilver hybrids with controlled silver release

Authors Huang S, Yu Z, Zhang Y, Qi C, Zhang S

Received 16 December 2016

Accepted for publication 23 February 2017

Published 18 April 2017 Volume 2017:12 Pages 3181—3191

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S130397

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Linlin Sun


Siqi Huang, Zhiming Yu, Yang Zhang, Chusheng Qi, Shifeng Zhang

MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China

Abstract: In order to fabricate antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan–nanosilver (CMC-Ag) hybrids with controlled silver release, this study demonstrated comparable formation via three synthetic protocols: 1) carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and glucose (adding glucose after AgNO3), 2) CMC and glucose (adding glucose before AgNO3), and 3) CMC only. Under principles of green chemistry, the synthesis was conducted in an aqueous medium exposed to microwave irradiation for 10 minutes with nontoxic chemicals. The structure and formation mechanisms of the three CMC-Ag hybrids were explored using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared analyses. Additionally, antimicrobial activity and in vitro silver release of the three synthesized hybrids were investigated in detail. The results revealed that a large number of stable, uniform, and small silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in situ on CMC chains via protocol 1. AgNPs were well dispersed with narrow size distribution in the range of 6–20 nm, with mean diameter only 12.22±2.57 nm. The addition of glucose resulted in greater AgNP synthesis. The order of addition of glucose and AgNO3 significantly affected particle size and size distribution of AgNPs. Compared to CMC alone and commercially available AgNPs, the antimicrobial activities of three hybrids were significantly improved. Of the three hybrids, CMC-Ag1 synthesized via protocol 1 exhibited better antimicrobial activity than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3, and showed more effective inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli. Due to strong coordination and electrostatic interactions between CMC and silver and good steric protection provided by CMC, CMC-Ag1 displayed stable and continuous silver release and better performance in retaining silver for prolonged periods than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3.

Keywords: carboxymethyl chitosan/nanosilver hybrids, green synthesis, formation mechanism, controlled silver release, antimicrobial effect

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